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Ministry of Defence (MoD):

  • It was created after independence under a Cabinet Minister. Each Service was placed under its own Commander-in-Chief.
  • In 1955, the Commanders-in-Chief were renamed as the Chief of the Army Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff.
  • A Department of Defence Production was set up in 1962 to deal with research, development and production of defence equipment.
  • A Department of Defence Supplies was created in 1965 for planning and execution of schemes for import substitution of defence requirements.
  • These two departments were later merged to form the Department of Defence Production and Supplies.
  • In 2004, the name of Department of Defence Production and Supplies was changed to the Department of Defence Production.
  • In 1980, the Department of Defence Research and Development was created while the Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare was formed in 2004.
  • A post of Chief of Defence Staff was created in 2019.

Regional Security Environment:

  • The Government has continued to accord a high priority to relations with countries in Asia.
  • India has been committed to the policy “neighbourhood first” aimed at expanding the close and friendly relations with neighbours.
  • India’s defence and security policy is a function of its principled commitment to regional and international peace and prosperity.
  • The regional cooperation in the area of regional security has progressed significantly under the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).
  • The 4th BIMSTEC Summit, held in Kathmandu in 2018, was instrumental in giving regional cooperation a significant push.
  • The Kathmandu Declaration provides vision and leaders’ directions for intensifying regional cooperation in key areas of security and counter-terrorism, disaster management, connectivity and trade, agriculture and poverty alleviation, S&T, culture, tourism and people-to-people contacts, among others.
  • India has been contributing to the regional maritime security by ensuring safety and security of maritime traffic through helping our maritime neighbours set up their coastal surveillance networks for developing shared Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA).
  • In this context, India launched an Information Fusion Centre-Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR) in Gurugram in 2018.
  • The IFCIOR is a major initiative to put in place a mechanism for MDA and to ensure situational awareness of the maritime activities in the region.


  • India continues to play a role in training and supporting capacity building of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces (ANDSF) as a part of larger developmental cooperation assistance.


  • India and Bangladesh continued to undertake efforts to bolster the defence cooperation, which includes operationalising the US$ 500 million Defence LOG extended to Bangladesh by India.


  • India’s security concerns are closely linked with the neighbouring littoral nations in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) including the Maldives.
  • India continues to assist Maldives National Defence Forces in their capability and capacity building.
  • Bilateral exercises between the Army (Ekuverin), Navy (Ekatha) and Coast Guard (Dosti) of the two countries take place on an annual basis.


  • The 13th edition of India Nepal Joint Military Exercise ‘Surya Kiran’ was held in 2018.


  • The security cooperation between India and Myanmar has significantly improved and Indian defence agencies are working in close coordination with Myanmar Defence forces to address the problem of insurgent groups along the India-Myanmar border.

Sri Lanka

  • The armies of India and Sri Lanka held their sixth annual ‘Mitra Shakti’ military exercise.

West Asia

  • it is home to nearly nine million Indians who remit about 60 per cent (US$ 39 billion) of the total of approximately US$ 62 billion foreign remittances.  Over half of our energy requirements are also met from this region.


  • Indo-US partnership is on a positive trajectory with India been designated ‘Major Defence Partner’ in National Defence Authorization Act (NDAA-17) and has been upgraded to Strategic Authorisation Act-1 Status (STA-1) equating India at par with the closest allies of US.


  • The maritime element of our cooperation with countries of Africa, especially in the East and Southern African region, is expanding.
  • India and Africa are part of India-Pacific Continuum.  India has formalized frameworks of Defence cooperation with South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar.
  • In the Indian Ocean Region, India’s relationships with littoral States have grown stronger.
  • The country’s new Indian Ocean Policy was articulated by Prime Minister during his visit to Mauritius in March 2015.
  • The policy, encapsulated in SAGAR (meaning ocean) which stands for “Security and Growth for All in the Region”, includes deepening economic and security cooperation with our friends in the region, especially our maritime neighbours and island states and favours collective action and cooperation for peace and security in India’s maritime region.
  • India has abiding interests in the Indo-Pacific region, and its engagements with the countries and institutions in the region have been deepening.
  • To the east, the Malacca Strait and the South China Sea connect India to the Pacific and to most of its major partners -ASEAN, Japan, Republic of Korea, China, Americas and the pacific countries.
  • India has regularly participated in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) events to promote maritime cooperation initiatives.

Internal Security Environment:

  • The range of challenges to internal security in India, emanating from terrorism/insurgency, can be categorised into four broad theatres, namely:
    • Terrorism in the hinterland
    • Cross border terrorism in Jammu & Kashmir
    • Insurgency in North East
    • Left-wing extremism in certain states

Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff:

  • HQIDS was raised in 2001 based on the recommendations of Group of Ministers to review Higher Defence Management.
  • Under the aegis of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee, the organisation has been working towards the achievement of synergy amongst the Services.
  • HQ IDS is headed by the Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to the Chairman COSC (CISC) who enjoys a status equivalent to that of a Vice Chief of a Service HQ.
  • The organization has representation from all three Services, MEA, DRDO, DoD and Def (Finance).
  • IDS provides secretariat and general assistance to the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).
  • It facilitates the efficient functioning of multi-Service bodies.
  • The major highlights of the role and function profile of the organisation include:
    • Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) which is entrusted with preparing contingency plans and assessments for consideration of COSC and subsequent approval of the plan by RM/CCS, as required.
    • Long-range plans and annual budgetary proposals for the three Services and presenting a coordinated set of proposals to Raksha Mantri.
    • Joint training and joint employment of Forces by formulating policy and programmes on employment, joint training and military education for personnel of the defence Services.


Contribution to UN Peacekeeping

  • The Indian Army has been significantly contributing to United Nations Peacekeeping Missions and is the second-largest troop's contributor in various UN missions.
  • Since 1950, the Indian Army has participated in 51 UN missions out of the total of 71 UN missions, across the globe.
  • It has contributed more than 2,34,000 Indian troops in various UN missions.
  • Currently, four UN Peace Keeping missions’ contingents of India are deployed around the world.
  • India has so far provided 15 Force Commanders in various UN missions.
  • India is contributing comprehensively towards the capability building of the UN by training peacekeepers of member states.
  • India has a well-established training institute in ‘Centre for United Nations Peacekeeping’ in Delhi, which was established in 2000, training both personnel from India and abroad on UN peacekeeping.
  • Seven international courses are conducted for international participants to include, UN Military Observers Course, UN Female Military Officers Course and UN Contingent Commanders Course.

Operation Sadbhavna

  • The Army undertakes a unique human initiative in Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to address the aspirations of people affected by terrorism.
  • Launched in an extremely challenging operating environment, the Operation is a part of the Counter-Terrorist strategy to wrest the initiative and re-integrate the ‘Awaam’ with the national mainstream.
  • Aim: To supplement the efforts of the government in restoring public services, rebuilding infrastructure and creating a conducive environment for development by restoring public services, rebuilding infrastructure and creating a conducive environment for development in the region.


Military Role

  • India has a long coastline, numerous Island Territories, a vast Maritime Zone, substantial energy infrastructure and other vital assets in the littoral area.
  • The IN has also been designated as the agency responsible for overall Maritime Security including Coastal Security and Offshore Security.

Anti-Piracy Operations

  • A large percentage of India’s trade, including oil and fertilisers, pass through the Gulf of Aden (GoA).
  • The Ministry of Shipping has estimated that Indian imports through this route are valued at about US$ 50 billion and exports at US$ 60 billion.
  • Piracy off the coast of Somalia had grown steadily over the years and had assumed alarming proportions in 2010 and 2011.
  • There has been a noticeable decline in piracy since 2012.
  • To protect Indian-flagged ships and Indian citizens employed in seafaring duties, Indian Navy (IN) commenced anti-piracy patrols in the GoA from 2008.

Free Patrol

  • In 2018, IN shifted from the ‘Escort Cycle’ concept to a concept of ‘Free Patrol’.
  • The ‘Free Patrol’ in the GoA provided greater flexibility to the IN ship to respond to developing situations for the anti-piracy mission.
  • In addition, it also facilitated participation in UN World Food Programme information sharing mechanism with other participating navies as mandated by CCS, exercises with friendly foreign navies in the region and undertake capacity/capability building initiatives in Somalia in coordination with MoD/MEA.

Air Force

Make in India

  • One of the main focus areas of the IAF is to support indigenisation and manufacturing of defence equipment, thus reducing dependence on import of defence equipment.
  • Light Combat Aircraft, Akash Missile, Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) have already been inducted, thus giving impetus to indigenisation.
  • Further, IAF plans to induct more capable and potent LCA Mk1A in the future.
  • MoD has been striving to include the private sector in the production of defence equipment.

Digital India Initiative

  • IAF has established pan IAF captive 3 G WCDMA Mobile Network AFCEL.
  • Inhouse initiatives have also seen the development of the apps like Instant Messaging App (AFCHAT); IAF Directory Search App; Conference Scheduler App; CallerIDApp;  Air Force Central Accounts Office (AFCAO) App and Website; Med Watch App.

Women Empowerment

  • Avani Chaturvedi, Bhawana Kanth and Mohana Singh created history in 2016 by becoming the first women pilots to be commissioned into the fighter stream.

National Cadet Corps:

  • The National Cadet Corps (NCC) was established in 1948 as an Indian military cadet corps.
  • It is a tri-services organisation open to school and college students.
  • It has completed 69 years of its existence.
  • The NCC strives to provide the youth of the country opportunities for all-round development with a sense of commitment, dedication, self-discipline and moral values so that they become responsible citizens and can take their place in all walks of life in the service of the nation.
  • NCC’s presence extends to 703 out of 716 districts in the country covering 16,288 institutions.

Sainik Schools:

  • The Sainik Schools were established as a joint venture of the central and state government.
  • These are under the overall governance of Sainik Schools Society.
  • At present, there are 26 Sainik Schools located in various parts of the country.
  • The objectives of Sainik Schools include bringing quality public school education within the reach of the common man, all-round development of a child’s personality and to remove regional imbalance in the officer’s cadre of the Armed Forces.

Rashtriya Military Schools:

  • There are five Rashtriya Military Schools in the country at Belgaum and Bengaluru in Karnataka, Chail in Himachal Pradesh and Ajmer and Dholpur in Rajasthan.
  • These schools are CBSE affiliated fully residential public schools which function under the aegis of Ministry of Defence.

Defence Undertakings

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

  • HAL established in 1940, is a premier aeronautical Company of Asia.
  • HAL, a Navratna DPSU with 20 production Divisions and 11 R&D centres spread across the country in nine geographical locations.
  • HAL is providing maintenance support to Indian Defence Services for all the fleet supplied by HAL including fleet such as HS-748, Cheetah / Chetak etc for which OEMs have discontinued their support.
  • HAL’s maintenance support to Indian Army and to Coast Guard is 100 per cent of their fleet and in respect of Indian Air Force and Indian Navy it is 75 per cent and 61 per cent.

Bharat Electronics Limited

  • BEL a Navaratna PSU, was established in 1954.
  • BEL has nine manufacturing units across India.
  • The company has core competency in areas of Defence Communications, Radars & Missile Systems, Sonars & Fire Control Systems, Electronic Warfare and Avionics Systems, Network Centric Systems, Electro-Optics, Tank Electronics, Home Land Security etc.


Bharat Earth Movers Limited

  • BEML incorporated in 1964, is a Mini-Ratna (Category-I) Public Sector Undertaking, under the Ministry of Defence.
  • BEML operates in three business segments-mining and construction, defence and aerospace, rail and metro and international business division for export activities

Bharat Dynamics Limited

  • BDL a Mini Ratna Category-I Company was incorporated in 1970 under the Ministry of Defence.
  • A pioneer in the manufacture of Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM), today, BDL has evolved as a conglomerate manufacturing ATGMs of latest generations, Surface-to-Air weapon systems, strategic weapons, launchers, underwater weapons, decoys and test equipment.

Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited

  • MDL is a leading Defence PSU established as public limited company in 1934.
  • The Company was taken over by the Government of India in 1960 with the aim of building indigenous warships.

Directorate General of Quality Assurance

  • DGQA is responsible for quality assurance of all defence stores and equipment, both indigenous as well as imported for the army, navy (excluding Naval Armaments) and common user items for the air force procured from ordnance factories, public sector undertakings and private sector.

Directorate of Planning and Coordination:

  • It is an attached office of Department of Defence Production, was established in 1964.
  • The Directorate is primarily mandated to promote indigenization in defence sector through various enabling policies viz-’Make in India’ initiative, liberalization of FDI Policy /Industrial licensing policy, providing level playing field to the private sector and giving preference to procurement from the indigenous route.
  • The Directorate is responsible to maintain and update the ‘Make in India portal on Defence website.
  • The Directorate strives to foster international cooperation in the defence sector and boost the export of defence equipment to other countries.


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