Any Questions? info@beandbyias.com /+91 9958826967, 9958294810, +91 11-41644377

For registration call @ 9958294810 or mail at info@beandbyias.com | LAW OPTIONAL COURSE for CIVIL SERVICES MAINS 2021 with "Indian Polity of G.S. Prelims & Mains" Live classes Starting from 1st December 2020. |

States and Union Territories

30. States and Union Territories

Andhra Pradesh

Imporatant facts:

  • The earliest mention in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 BC)
  • The regular history of Andhra Desa begins with 236 BC, the year of Ashoka‘s death.
  • Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, and  Kakatiyas, Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi ruled the Telugu country.
  • After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1st October 1953. 
  • States Reorganisation Act 1956-there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently, Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.
  • situated on the country’s southeastern coast
  • second-longest coastline of 974 km (605 mi) second only to Gujarat
  • A small enclave of 30 sq.km of a district of Puducherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the north-east of the state.

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

  • Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 commonly called Telangana Act- bifurcation of the Andhra Pradesh into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh.  

Agriculture

  • Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 % of the people in the state.
  • Rice is a major food crop and staple food contributing to about 77 % of the foodgrain production.
  • Other important crops:  jowar, bajra, maize, Craig, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane.
  • Forests cover: 23 % 
  • Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casuarina, bamboo, softwood, etc.

Irrigation

  • Jalayagnam programme. To provide immediate irrigation to water starved areas  

Power

  • Important power projects: Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel Projects.

Industries

  • Extending various incentives for SSI and tiny sector and large and medium scale industries. 
  • promoting the manufacturing sector, Special Economic Zones
  • (SEZs).

Mines and Geology  

  • Andhra Pradesh is well known globally as Ratna Garbha.
  • Largest deposits of chrysotile asbestos in the country.  
    Other: Copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone.
  • The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to entire south India.
  • AP stands first in barytes and limestone production in the country.

Information Technology

  • Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt.
Transport
  • Roads: The total R&B network in the state is 69,051 km 
  • Railways: 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 
  • Aviation: Important airports: Shamshabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights from Shamshabad.
  • Ports: There is one major port at Visakhapatnam under the Centre and 13 non-major ports under state  
Tourist Centres
  • Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda, Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi.

Arunachal Pradesh

History and Geography

  • Full-fledged state on February 20, 1987.
  • Till 1972, it was known as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA)
  • The capital of the state is Itanagar in Papum Pare district.
    Itanagar is named after Ita fort, meaning fort of bricks, built in the 14th century
    Arunachal Pradesh finds mention in the literature of Kalika Purana and
    Mahabharata. 
    This place is the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas. 

Agriculture and Horticulture

  • Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of the state and mainly depends on jhum cultivation.

 Festivals

  • Mopin and Solung of the Adis, Lossar of the Monpas, Boori-boot of the Hill Miris, Sherdukpens, Dree of the Apatanis, Si-Donyi of the Tagins, Reh of the ldu-Mishmis, Nyokum of the Nyishis,

Assam

History and Geography

  • Between 89° 42’ E to 96° E longitude and 24° 8’ N to 28° 2’ N latitude
  • known as a “Land of Red River and Blue Hills”
  • Brahmaputra flows through it, serving as a lifeline for its people
  • influence of several races like Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian and Aryan 
  • Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa
  • Earlier epigraphic reference in-Allahabad pillar inscription of King Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta Empire, but with friendly and subordinate relation to it.
  • Hiuen Tsang visited Kamrupa in 743 AD
  • Arabian historian Alberuni mention Assam in the eleventh century.
  • Ahoms came in 1228 AD, ruled Assam nearly for six centuries.
  • British protectorate in 1826 under Treaty of Yandaboo

Physiography

  • A significant geographical aspect: it contains three of six Physiographic divisions of India—the Northern Himalayas (eastern Hills) the Northern Plains (Brahmaputra Plain), and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong).  
  • Barak river originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) 
  • The Karbi Hills and the N.C. Hills are located in the south of the Brahmaputra valley.
  • Karbi Hills are a part of the Meghalaya plateau.

Agriculture

  • abundant fertile land and water resources 40 % increase in contribution of Agriculture in GDP

Forest & Wildlife

  • Forest: 37.33 % area
  • Wildlfie: globally threatened species such as Golden Langoor, Hoolock Gibbon, Pigmy Hog, Hispid Hare, White-winged Wood Duck, Tiger, Clouded Leopard, Elephant, Swamp Deer, Gangetic Dolphin 
  • Tiger population has risen to 167 in 2014

Festivals

  • Bihu-most important festival of Assam.
  • Bodos, the largest tribal group, perform Kherai puja
  • Bathow is another important puja of the Bodos.

Tourism

  • Assam, the “Gateway of the North-East”  
  • Kamakhya Temple, Umananda (Peacock
    Island)Temple, Navagraha (temple of nine planets), Basistha Ashram, Doul Govinda Temple, Madan Kamdev Temple—a magnificent archeological place of interest, Saraighat Bridge, Kaziranga National Park, etc.

Bihar

History and Geography

  • The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit word Vihara which means “abode”
  • finds mention in the Vedas, Puranas, ancient epics, etc.
  • main scene of activities of Buddha and 24 Jain Trithankars.
  • Ancient universities of India Nalanda and Vikramshila
  • Great rulers of the state Before the Christian era were Bimbisar, Udayin, who founded the city of Pataliputra, Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka, the Sungas and the Kanvas.
  • Then came the Kushan rulers followed by Chandragupta Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty.  
  • The first Muslim conqueror of Bihar was Mohammed- bin-Bakhtiar Khalji. The Tughluqs and then the Mughals followed
    the Khaljis.
    Rivers: Ganga, Sone, Punpun, Falgu, Karmanasa, Durgawati,
    Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghara.

Agriculture

  • The total geographical area of about 93.60 lakh hectares
  • Only 55.54 lakh hectares is the net cultivated area with a Gross cultivated area of 72.95 lakh hectares.
  • Principal food crops: paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses.
  • Main cash crops:  sugarcane, potato, tobacco, oilseeds, onion, chillies, jute, and mesta.
  • Forest area: 6.65 % of its geographical area

Festivals

  • Chhath Pooja, also called Chhathi Dala, Chhath and Surya Shashthi, ‘Sama Chakeba’, the Harihar Mela of Sonepur,

Tourist Places:

  • Patna, Bodh Gaya, Gaya, Rajgir, Sitamarhi — the birth place of Sita, Barabar Caves, Kesaria Stupa, 100 feet tall Dev Sun Temple of Aurangabad, Jain temples, Buddlist Stupas  

Chhattisgarh

History and Geography

  • Carved out of Madhya Pradesh came into being in November
  • 2000 as the 26th state of the Union
  • In ancient times the region was known as Dakshin- Kausal.
  • Finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata also
  • Kalchuris rulers ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791
  • AD.
  • Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Odisha in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south

Agriculture

  • 137.90 lakh ha, out which arable land is about 47.70 lakh ha
  • main kharif crop of this region is paddy

Mineral Resources

perfect geological set up to host a number of economically crucial minerals. coal, iron ore, limestone, bauxite and dolomite 

Industry

  • largely natural resource driven  
  • cement, mining, steel, aluminium and power.

Goa

History and Geography

  • known in the bygone days as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Gomantak, 
  • In the first century of the Christian era, it was a part of the
    Satavahana empire, followed by the Kadamba, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, the Chalukyas and the Silharas
  • empire of the Yadavas by the end of the 14th
    century was displaced by the Khiljis of Delhi and thus Muslim rule came to Goa. Vasco-da- Gama in 1498
  • Alfonso de Albuquerque with the help of the emperor of Vijayanagar attacked and captured Goa.
  • With the arrival of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier in 1542, proselytisation began in Goa.
  • Even after India’s independence, Goa continued to be in the hands of the Portuguese.
  • on 19 December 1961, Goa was liberated and made a composite Union Territory with Daman and Diu.
  • Terekhol river separates Goa from Maharashtra

Ports

  • Mormugao is the major port in the state

Tourist Centres

  • Rich wildlife sanctuaries, viz., Bondla, Cotigao, Molem and Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary at Chorao 
  • mportant tourist centres are Colva, Calangute, Vagator, Baga, Harmal, Anjuna and Miramar beaches; Basilica of Bom Jesus and St. Cathedral churches at Old Goa; Kavlem, Mardol, Mangeshi, Bandora Temples; Aguada, Terekhol, Chapora and Cabo de Rama Forts

Forest

  • forest cover of 34 %

Health

  • first state in the country to launch diabetic registry

Gujarat

History and Geography

  • history of Gujarat goes back to 2000 BC
  • Lord Krishna left Mathura to settle in the west coast of Saurashtra which later came to be known as Dwarka
  • during the rule of Chalukyas (Solankis) that Gujarat witnessed
    progress and prosperity.
  • plunderred  by  Mahmud Ghazni 
  • Before independence, the present territories of Gujarat used
    to be in two parts - the British and the Princely territories.

Agriculture

  • celebrated 2014-15 as krishi vikas varsh. 
  • major producer of cotton, groundnut and tobacco

Electricity

  • first state in the country to come with a solar policy in 2009

Ports

  • Nearly 80 per cent of the total traffic on the non- major ports
    and about 48 per cent of the total traffic on all the ports of the country is being recorded on the ports of Gujarat,
  • one major port—Kandla Port and 41 minor and intermediate

Festivals

  • Tarnetar fair
  • Madhavrai fair
  • Ambaji fair dedicated to Amba mother goddess
  • Navratri - world’s longest dance festival,

Tourist Centres

  • Dwarka, Somnath, Palitana, Pavagadh, Ambaji, Bhadreshwar, Shamlaji, Taronga and Girnar;
  • Porbandar, birth place of Mahatma Gandhi,
  • Monuments of architectural and archaeological surprises like Patan, Siddhpur, Ghurali, Dabhoi; Vadnagar, Modhera, Lothal and Ahmedabad;
  • Beaches like Ahmadpur-Mandvi, Chorvad, Ubharat, and Tithal; Hill station Saputara, lion sanctuary of Gir forest and wild ass sanctuary in small desert of Kachchh Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

Haryana

History and Geography

  • proud history dating back to the Vedic Age.
  • home to the legendary Bharata dynasty, after which the country was named Bharat.
  • land of Haryana has been the cradle of Indian culture and
    civilization.
  • Vamana Purana states that King Kuru ploughed the field of Kurukshetra 
  • Saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharata in Haryana
  • Lord Krishna preached the gospel of duty to Arjuna about 5,000 years ago. 
  • epic battle of Mahabharata was fought. 
  • Mughals defeated the Lodhis in the historic battle of Panipat
    in 1526
  • With the reorganization of Punjab in November 1956, Haryana was born as a full-fledged state.
  • Haryana has the second highest per capita income in India, after Goa.

Agriculture

  • mainstay of more than 65 % population

Irrigation

  • The major irrigation projects in the state are Western Yamuna Canal System, Bhakra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal System.
  • multipurpose Sutlej- Beas project, Haryana sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan.

Power

  • The first state in the country to have achieved hundred per cent rural electrification way back in 1970

Industry

  • Haryana today is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instruments, etc.
  • It is the largest exporter of basmati rice.

Tourist Centres

  • 43 tourist complexes all over the state
  • Surajkund and Baddhkal Lake near Delhi
  • Sultanpur Birds Sanctuary (Sultanpur)

Himachal Pradesh

History and Geography

  • beautiful land situated in the lap of the western Himalayas
  • Called as “Dev Bhumi: the abode of gods and goddesses”.  
  • The territory of this state can be divided into
    three zones, Outer Himalayas or the Shivaliks, Inner Himalayas or MidMountains  and the Greater Himalayas or Alpine Zone

Agriculture

  • direct employment to about 70 per cent of the main
    working population
  • 22.1 per cent of the total state domestic product
  • cash crops like seed potato, off-season vegetables and ginger
  • distribution of seeds of high yielding varieties to the farmers. “Mukhya Mantri Jaivik Kheti Purskar Yojna”
  • “Mukhya Mantri Khet Sanrakshan Yojna” was launched to protect the farms from wild animals by providing solar fencing. 

Horticulture

  • called the “Fruit Bowl” of the country.  
  • The Horticulture Technology Mission is being implemented for the integrated development of horticulture.
  • This Mission is based on the “End To End Approach” taking into account the entire gamut of horticulture development with all backward and forward linkages in a holistic manner.

Hydro-Power Generation

  • Cent per cent electrification had been achieved in the state.

Forestry

  • 66.52 per cent of the total geographical area of the state
  • Forest plantation is being carried out under productive forestry scheme and soil conservation schemes.
  • A new scheme “Sub-Mission on Agro Forestry” was launched with the objective to increase tree plantation

Tourism

6.8 per cent to state GDP  

Jharkhand

History and Geography

  • came into being in November 2000
  • Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13 century.
  • comprises forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana

Agriculture

  • area of 79,714 sq km of which 18,423 sq km is forest land.

Industry and Minerals

  • Some of Jharkhand’s major industries are Bokaro Steel Plant in the public sector, Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the private sector.  
  • Minerals: coal, iron ore, limestone, copper ore, bauxite, pyrite, china clay, kyanite, fine clay, dolomite, graphite, bentonite, soap stone, quartz sand and silica sand

Tourist Centres

Ichagarh Bird Sanctuary, Udhwa Sanctuary-Sahibganj, Chachro Crocodile Breeding Centre–Koderma, Tenughat Bird Sanctuary, Dalma WildLife Sanctuary (Jamshedpur), Betla National Park
(Palamau),

Karnataka

History and  Geography

  • Subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas
  • Indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD
  • Gomateshwara monolith at Shravanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya
  • Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD)reigned over a wider area, from Narmada to the Kaveri 
  • Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj
  • The Rashtrakutas (753973  AD) of Malkhed who succeeded Chalukyas
  • Kannada literature developed during the Rashtrakutas period. 
  • The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana.
  • Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana.
  • The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature.
  • Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco, maize, chillies, groundnut, potato, etc.).

Forestry and  Wildlife

  • 20.15 per cent of the geographical area
  • 5 national parks and 23 wildlife sanctuaries
  • Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the central assistance

Agriculture

  • 66 per cent rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are
    agricultural labourers.
  • The state has 60 per cent (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72 per cent of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28 per cent is under irrigation.

Dairy

  • one of the major milk producers in country

Ports :

  • Only one major port at Mangalore, i.e., New Mangalore Port
  • Ten minor ports —Karwar, Belekeri, Tadria, Honnavar, Bhatkala, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri and Old Mangalore.
  • Out of ten ports, Karwar is the only all weather port while the other nine are the riverine anchorage lighterage ports.

Tourism

  • Karnataka “One State Many Worlds” is becoming a hub of tourist attraction of south India.
  • The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in
    Hampi, a world heritage site
  • Nagarhole National Park (Kabini)
  • Belur—the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a
    world heritage site,

Kerala

History and Geography

  • in the extreme south-west of the Indian subcontinent.  
  • The backwaters form an attractive and economically valuable feature of Kerala.
  • When independent India amalgamated small states together Travancore and Cochin states were integrated to form Travancore-Cochin state in July 1949.
  • However, Malabar remained under the Madras province. Under the States Re- organisation Act, 1956, Travancore-Cochin state and Malabar were united to form Kerala state in November, 1956.

Agriculture

  • land of lush green paddy fields, cool coconut groves, fragrant
    spice garden, dubbed as “God’s Own Country.
  • Warm humid tropical climate make Kerala an ideal place
    for cultivation of a wide variety of crops which included coconut, rice, rubber, banana, spices, fruits, vegetables, cashew nut, tubers, coffee, tea, medicinal plants, arecanut, etc.

Irrigation

  • Rice is the major crop that benefited through irrigation infrastructure. 

Drinking Water

  • In urban and rural areas of the state, 29 per cent and 71 per cent of the population were covered.

Power

  • Kerala is a power deficit state which imports 60 per cent of power from other states. 

Port Sector :

  • Kerala lies in the south west corner of the Indian peninsula.
  • with one major port at Kochi and 17 minor ports.

Festivals

  • Kerala is the home of many colourful festivals. Onam is the most typical of festivals which coincides with the harvest season.
  • Navarathri is celebrated as Saraswathi Pooja. 
  • The 41-day festival, which coincides with Makaravilakku in Sabarimala Ayyappan Temple, attracts lakhs of people from India and abroad. 
  • All the boat festivals have a religious origin except Nehru Trophy Boat Race conducted in the Punnamada Lake.
  • The Muslims celebrate Milade Shareef, Ramzan Id-ul-Fitr and Bakrid.

Tourism

  • Fondly referred to as “God’s Own Country”
  • Kerala was selected by the National Geographic Traveller as one of the 50 destinations of a lifetime and one of the thirteen paradises in the world.

Madhya Pradesh

History and Geography:

  • King Ashoka, first of all, ruled over Ujjain.
  • A sizeable portion of Central India was part of the Gupta empire (300-500 A.D.).
  • Mahmud Ghazni and Mohammad Gouri  incorporated some parts of Central India into the ruling territory of Delhi.
  • Was also part of the Mughal empire.
  • Marathas were on the ascendant during period between the beginning of the influence of Marathas and the death of Madhoji Scindia in 1794.
  • Small states started coming into existence and became the cause of perpetuation of British power.
  • Queen Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore, the Gond Maharani Kamalapati and Queen Durgawati, etc., were women rulers.
  • Second largest Indian state in size with an area of 3,08,000 sq.km.
  • Madhya Pradesh came into being in November 1956. It was reorganised in November 2000 to create a new Chhattisgarh state.
  • Bounded in north by Uttar Pradesh, east by Chhattisgarh, south by Maharashtra and west by Gujarat and Rajasthan.

Economy

  • Its GSDP has gone up from more ? 1 lakh crore to a whopping ? 5 lakh crore over the decade.

Agriculture

  • Madhya Pradesh has posted country’s highest agricultural growth rate which had averaged above 20 per cent over last four years.
  • Leads the country in production of pulses, oilseeds, soyabean, gram, pea, garlic, guava and medicinal and aromatic herbs.
  • Horticulture is being promoted in a big way.

Irrigation

  • Irrigation has increased from mere 7.5 lakh hectare ten years back to 40 lakh hectare now.
  • Narmada-Kshipra Link Project has been implemented.
  • Three major, five medium and over 700 minor irrigation projects have been completed over last five years.

Power

  • Power availability has increased from just 4500 MW twelve years ago to 17,169 MW now.
  • Country’s largest 130 MW solar energy plant has been established in Neemuch.

Industries

  • Separate MSME department has been set up.
  • MSME Promotion Policy of State Government 50,000 units were registered.Investment of over ? 5 thousand crore ,provided jobs to over 2 lakh people.

Department of Happiness

  • Based on  Indian wisdom besides taking into account the indices that determine national growth as also the experiences of other countries in our strategies and action plans

Transport

  • Roads: The total length of roads in the state is 58,423 km. The length of national highway in the state is 4,709 km. State highway extends to 10,501 km.
  • Railways. Main junctions are Bhopal, Bina, Gwalior, Indore, Itarsi, Jabalpur, Katni, Ratlam and Ujjain. The divisional railways headquarters are at Bhopal, Ratlam and Jabalpur.

Festivals

  • An important tribal festival is Bhagoriya
  • Shivratri is celebrated in Khajuraho, Bhojpur, Pachmarhi and Ujjain.
  • Ramnavami festival at Chitrakoot and Orchha
  • Tansen Music Festival, Gwalior; Ustad Allauddin Khan Music Festival Maihar; Kalidas Samaroh, Ujjain; and Festival of Dances at Khajuraho -art festivals.
  • An annual Narmada Festival has been started from this year at Bedhaghat in Jabalpur, famous for its marble rocks.
  • A Shivpuri festival has been started at Shivpuri.
  • Betwa festival has also been started at Vidisha.

Tourist Centres

  • Pachmarhi, Dhuandhar Fall at Bedaghat, Kanha National Park, and Bandhavgarh National Park.
  • .Gwalior, Mandu, Datia, Chanderi, Jabalpur, Orchha, Raisen, Sanchi, Vidisha, Udaygiri, Bhimbetika, Indore and Bhopal -known for their historical monuments.
  • Maheshwar, Omkareshwar, Ujjain, Chitrakoot and Amarkantak -major centres of pilgrimage.
  • Unique temples of Khajuraho are famous all over the world.
  • The temples of Orchha, Bhojpur and Udaypur .
  • Museums at Satna, Sanchi, Vidisha, Gwalior, Indore, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Rajgarh, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Rewa .
  • Omkareshwar, Maheshwar and Amarkantak -holy cities .

Maharashtra

History and Geography:

  • The first well-known rulers Satavahanas (230 BC to 225 AD),
  • Vakatakas -pan-Indian empire-all-sided-Ajanta Caves and Fresco Paintings reached their pinnacle.
  •  Kalachuri dynasty,
  • The most important rulers-Chalukyas , Rashtrakutas ,Yadavas and Shilaharas.
  • The Yadavas-Marathi as their court language extended authority over large parts of the Deccan.
  •  The Bahamani rule brought a degree of cohesion.
  • Homogeneous evolution-Shivaji-new sense of Swaraj and nationalism -stalled the Mughal advances.
  • The Peshwas established the Maratha supremacy from the Deccan Plateau to some areas in northern India.
  • Forefront during freedom struggle -Indian National Congress was born.
  • Home of Gandhiji’s movement-Sevagram was the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era.
  •  The administrative evolution -linguistic reorganisation of the states of India,in May, 1960. bringing together all contiguous Marathi-speaking areas of four different administrative hegemonies-districts between Daman and Goa ,five districts of the Nizam’s dominion of Hyderabad,eight districts in the south of the Central provinces (Madhya Pradesh) and native-ruled state enclaves lying enclosed .
  • Located in the north centre of Peninsular India, with the command of the Arabian Sea through its Port of Mumbai.
  •  The dominant physical trait is its plateau character. Maharashtra is a plateau of plateaus, in west Sahyadri Range with its slopes descending towards the east and south-east. Satpura ranges cover the northern part, while Ajanta and Satmala ranges run through central part.
  •  Arabian Sea guards the western boundary,Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are on the northern side. Chhattisgarh and Telangana cover the eastern boundary.Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are on its southern side.

Agriculture

  • About 65 per cent of the total workers in the state depend on agriculture and allied activities.
  • Principal crops are rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, moong, urad, gram and other pulses. The state is a major producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean are major oilseed crops.
  • Important cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables.

Industries

  • Country’s powerhouse and Mumbai, its capital -centre point of India’s financial and commercial markets.
  • Industrial sector occupies a prominent position.
  • Food products, breweries, tobacco and related products, textiles and textile products, paper and paper products, printing and publishing, rubber, plastic, chemical and chemical products, machinery, electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, and transport equipment and parts contribute substantially to the industrial production.

Transport

  • Roads : Total length-2.43 lakh km -4,376 km of national highways, 34,157 km of state highways, 50,256 km of major district roads, 46,817 km of other district roads, and 1,06,601 km of village roads.
  • Railways : 5,983 km of railway routes  (9.2 per cent of total railway route in the country).
  •  Aviation : 3 international and 5 domestic airports in the state. An additional airport is coming up at Navi Mumbai.
  • Ports : Mumbai is a major port. There are 2 major and 48 notified minor ports in the state.

Tourist Centres

  • Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri and Karla caves, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jowhar, Malshej Ghat, Amboli, Chikhaldara, Panhala hill stations and religious places at Pandharpur, Nashik, Shirdi, Nanded, Aundha Nagnath, Trimbakeshwar, Tuljapur, Ganapatipule, Bhimashankar, Harihareshwar, Shegaon, Kolhapur, Jejuri and Ambajogai.

Manipur

History and Geography:

  • The political history of Manipur could be traced back to 33 A.D. -Nongda Lairen Pakhangba.
  • Burmese invasion (1819-1826).
  • Under British rule in 1891.
  •  Regained its independence in 1947 and merged into Indian Union in 1950-Part C State under the purview of Chief Commissioner.
  • 1950-51-advisory form of Government was introduced .
  • 1957 Territorial Council of 30 elected and 2 nominated members.
  • 1963 Territorial Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members under the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963.
  • December, 1969. -The status of administrator was raised from that of a Chief Commissioner to that of a Lt. Governor.
  • Full-fledged state in 1972 with a Legislative Assembly of 60 members (19 are reserved for Scheduled Tribes and one for Scheduled Castes)
  • Represented in the Lok Sabha by two members and by one member in the Rajya Sabha.
  • Situated in the extreme north-eastern border of the country. It is bound on the east by upper Myanmar, on the north by Nagaland, on the west by Cachar district of Assam and on the south by Chin hills of Myanmar and Mizoram.
  • Total border line of about 854 km (352 km are international boundary line with Myanmar on the east and south- east)
  • .Geographically unique position, since it virtually is the meeting point between India and South-East Asia.
  • Manipur lies between 23.800 N and 25.680 N latitude and between 93.030 E and 94.780 E longitude.
  • The state has a total area of 22,327 sq. km.
  • There is a small oval shaped plain in the central part known as Imphal Valley at 790 metres above Mean Sea Level (MSL).
  • The hill covers about 9/10 of the total area of the state. The hill ranges are higher on the north and gradually diminish towards the south. The valley itself slopes down towards the south.

Agriculture

  • 70 per cent of the population depends on it.
  • The state has two topographical zones — valley and hills.
  • The valley is known as the ‘Rice Bowl’ of the state. The valley has sub-tropical to tropical to sub-temperate climates.
  • The hills have sub-temperate to temperate climate with an average altitude of 3000 metres above MSL.
  •  Distinct winter, warm, humid and rainy summer.
  • The average rainfall during the last ten years has been 1482.20 mm, with heavy precipitation during the month of June, July and August.
  • The growth of agriculture has been quite uneven for its production still depends on seasonal rainfall.

Forest

  • 701 sq. km of very dense forests, 5474 sq. km. moderately dense forests and 11,105 sq. km open forests.

Irrigation

  • 8 (eight) major and medium irrigation and multipurpose projects have been taken up of which 5 projects viz. Loktak Lift Irrigation Project, Khoupum Dam Project, Imphal Barrage Project, Sekmai Barrage Project and Singda Multipurpose Project have been completed.

Power

  • Fully dependent on the Central Generating Stations situated in the North Eastern Region (NER)-mainly of hydel-during lean period shortfall in generation

Commerce and Industries

  • The handloom industry -the largest and most important cottage industry.
  • As per the 3rd National Handloom Census of Weavers and Allied Workers 2010, Manipur topped in distribution of handloom workers.
  • Among top four states of the country promoting and nurturing the handloom industry for generating employment

Transport

  • Roads: only means of communication
  • . Three national highways : i) NH39, ii) NH-53 and iii) NH-150 criss-cross the state connecting all districts.
  • Imphal, the capital is connected by NH-39 with Nagaland on the north and Myanmar on the east, on the west with Assam by NH-53 and Mizoram on the south by NH-150.
  • Aviation: Imphal airport is the second largest airport in the north eastern region, which is connected to Agartala, Aizwal, Dimapur, Guwahati, Kolkata, Pune, Silchar, Bengaluru and New Delhi.
  • Railways: Was included in the railway map of India with the opening of a rail head at Jiribam in 1990. It is 225 km from Imphal. Dimapur (Nagaland), 215 km from Imphal is the nearest rail-head.
  • The Jiribam - Tupul - Imphal railway declared as a national project. Targeted for completion by 2014 (upto Tupul) and 2016 (upto Imphal).

Festivals

  • Lai Haraoba, Rasa Leela, Cheiraoba, Ningol Chak-Kouba, Rath-Jatra, Idul Fitr, Imoinu Iratpa, Gaan- Ngai, Lui-Ngai-Ni, Idul Zuha, Yaoshang (Holi), Durga Puja, Mera Houchongba, Diwali, Kut, Christmas, etc.

Tourist Centres

  • Kangla, Shree Shree Govindajee Temple, Khwalramband Bazar (Ima Keithel), War Cemeteries, Shaheed Minar, Nupi Lan (Women’s War) Memorial Complex, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Sendra, Moreh, Siroy Hills, Dzuko Valley, State Museum, Kaina Tourist Home, Khongjom War Memorial Complex, India Peace Memorial (Red Hill),

Meghalaya

History and Geography:

  • 1970- an autonomous state within the state of Assam.
  • 1972-The full-fledged state of Meghalaya came into existence.
  •  Bound on the north and east by Assam and on the south and west by Bangladesh.
  • Means the ‘Abode of Clouds’ and is essentially a hilly state.
  • The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills which form the central and eastern part of the state form a plateau its south is marked by deep gorges and abrupt slopes, at the foot of which, a narrow strip of plain runs along the international border with Bangladesh.
  •  The Garo hills which form the western part is lower in elevation. The greater part of Garo Hills range in height from 450 m to 600 m and drop steeply to the Brahmaputra valley on the north and to the plains of Bangladesh on the south, Nokrek Peak (1412m)-the highest peak in western Meghalaya. In the Garo hills, the Manda, the Damring and the Janjiram flow towards the north while the Ringge and the Ganol flow in the westerly direction. Those that flow to the south are the Simsang, which is the biggest river in Garo hills and the Bhogai.
  • Predominately inhabited by the tribal Khasis, Jaintias and Garos population.
  • Bounded on the north and east by Assam and on the south and west by Bangladesh.
  • Meghalaya is spread over an area of 22, 429 square kilometres.
  • Lies between 24°57’ and 26°10 north latitude and 89°46’ and 92°53’ east longitudes.

Agriculture

  • 81 per cent of its total population depending entirely on it for their livelihood.
  • The hilly terrain and land conditions of the state do not offer much scope in bringing additional area under wet condition.
  • The agro-climatic variations offer much scope for cultivation of temperate as well as tropical fruits and vegetables.
  • Major food crops of rice and maize and horticultural crops like orange. lemon, pineapple, guava, litchi, banana, jackfruits and temperate fruits such as plum, pear, peach, etc.
  • Cash crops-Potato, ginger, turmeric, black pepper, arecanut, tezpata, betel, short- staple cotton, jute, mesta, mustard and rapeseed etc.,
  • Non-traditional crops like tea, cashew nut, oilseeds, tomato, mushroom, wheat, etc.

Forest

  • The total forest area is 9,49,56,000 hectares
  • The principal timber species are sal, teak, titachap, gomari, bol, pine, birch and makri-sal.
  • The principal forest products include timber, bamboo, reed, broomstick, cane, ipecac, medicinal herbs and plants, cinnamon and thatch grass.
  • Azaleas and rhododendrons grow wild in the forests of Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills forest and many kinds of wild and rare orchids are also found.
  • Pitcher plants, is found in plenty in the Jaintia Hills, West Khasi Hills and South Garo Hills (found nowhere else in the world).
  • Wild citrus and pygmy lily are also found.

Wildlife

  • Elephants, tigers, bears, wildboars, leopards, golden cats, leopard cats and jungle cats, deers, binturongs, slow loris, monkeys of different types including capped- langurs, golden langurs and hoolock, flying squirrels and giant squirrels.
  • Birds including the hornbills, partridges, pheasants, teals, snipes, geese, ducks and quails.
  • The state has two national parks, viz, Nokrek and Balpakram and two wildlife sanctuaries, viz, Nongkhyllem and Siju.

Industries

  • The most important non-agro based industry is cement(rich limestone deposits)
  • Small scale industrial units covering service industry, bakeries, furniture making, iron and steel fabrication, tyre retreading etc., are increasing.
  • The Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation encourages private entrepreneurs.

Transport

  • Roads are the only means of bulk transportation here.
  • Roads: Six national highways pass through the state. The state has 9350 km of road length with road density of 41.69 km per 100 sq.kms.
  • Aviation: The only airport in the state at Umroi, 35 km from Shillong is functional.

Tourist Centres

  • Shillong the capital city- Ward’s Lake, the Phan Nonglait Park, the expensive Polo Grounds, the Elephant Falls.
  • The Shillong Peak,Umiam,Shillong Peak, Sohra, Mawsynram, Jakrem, Ranikor, Dawki.

Mizoram

History and Geography:

  • Annexed by the British in 1891, Lushai hills in the north remained under Assam while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hills District under the Chief Commissioner of Assam .
  • North-Eastern Reorganization Act in 1972- became a Union Territory.
  • Memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front in 1986.
  • 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987.
  • Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh in the west.
  • Under the influence of the British Missionaries in the 19th century most of the Mizos are Christians. Mizo language has no script of its own. The missionaries introduced the Roman script for the Mizo language and formal education.

Agriculture

  • About 60 per cent of the people of the state are engaged in agricultural and allied activities.
  • Of the total 21 per cent is put on paddy/seasonal crops. About 63 per cent of the total crop area is under jhum cultivation-decreased due to the NLUP, oil palm development programme, sugarcane cultivation programme, RKVY, and RAD.
  • Because of agro-climatic condition, hilly terrain and well distributed rainfall during monsoon season horticulture is a sustainable land based activitiy. The main horticulture crops are mandarin orange, banana, passion fruit, grapes, hatkora, pineapple, papaya, etc. and flowers like anthurium, bird of paradise, orchid, chrysanthemum, rose and other subsidiary seasonal flowers. Spices like ginger, turmeric, black pepper, bird’s eye chillies are also grown.
  • A multi-purpose packaging house at the Horticulture Centre, Chite in collaboration with M/s Argos (Agri Projects) Ltd., Israel.
  • Floriculture was a growing occupation in Mizoram.Cultivation of anthurium was introduced in 2002 and today are exported.
  •  Commercial cultivation of rose under hi-tech green house was introduced in 2006 and about 10,000 rose cut flowers are being harvested everyday.

Forest

  • India State of Forest Report-2015 -91.47 per cent of the state’s total geographical area is under forests cover.
  • Tropical semi evergreen, tropical moist deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill and subtropical pine forests are the common vegetation types found.
  • Bamboo resources covers around 31per cent (about 6446 sq.km) of its geographical area and as many as 35 species of bamboo have been identified in the state of which Melocanna baccifera (mautak) contributes about 77 per cent of the total bamboo coverage.
  • Jhum cultivation,is reduced from a government supported initiative New Land Use Policy.
  • Green Mizoram Programme -mass afforestation and maintenance activities
  • 4700 hectares of plantation -under the National Afforestation Programme.

Irrigation

  • All irrigation projects are confined to minor irrigation.
  • Mizoram Remote Sensing Application Centre, -the total Wet Rice Cultivation potential area is 74,644 ha.
  •  439 minor irrigation projects covering 18,228 ha command area have been completed.
  • 25 new minor irrigation projects are proposed to be cover during 2016-17 which will cover an area of 1,117.90 ha. and create an irrigation potential of 1656 ha.

Power

  • The bulk power requirement is 201 MW and the allocated share is 103.09 MW (real time power availability is normally 60 MW).
  • Per capita consumption is 280 kWh.
  • The present peak demand is 102 MW but the state generates only about 15 MW from the installed capacity of 29.35 MW.

Industries

  • Due to its topographical, geographical disadvantages ,underdeveloped infrastructure and transport bottleneck, growth in industry is very modest.
  • With the opening up of border trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh, the ‘Look/Act East Policy’ of the Government of India and the peaceful condition of the state, industrialization is gaining momentum.
  • Small industries dominate the industrial scenario.
  • Government has been running two commonly facility centre and one Regional Industrial Development Corporation (RIDC) with an intake of 35 trainers.
  • Scientific cultivation of tea has also been taken up.
  • Establishment of apparel training and design centre, gems cutting and polishing are in the pipeline to encourage setting up of Export Oriented Units (EOUs).
  • Handloom and handicraft are given high priority.

Transport

  • Road: Road serves as the most important means of communication,
  • Total road length in the state is 6349.60 km and road density is 300012 km/100 sq km approximately.
  • There are six national highways passing through the length and breadth of Mizoram. NH 54 connects Aizawl with the rest of the country through Silchar, Assam.
  • Railways: Broad gauge rail link in Bairabi, Mizoram near Assam border.
  • Aviation: The airport at Lengpui is connected by flights to and from Kolkata, Imphal and Guwahati. Internal helicopter service also connects Aizawl with Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha, Chawngte, Serchhip, Champhai, Kolasib, Khawzawl, Mamit and Hnahthial.

Festivals

  • ‘Kut’ is the Mizo term for festival.
  • Only three, viz., Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Thalfavang Kut are being observed.

Tourist Centres

  • Aizawl, the capital city is a religious and cultural centre.
  • Champhai ,Tam Dil, Vantawng Falls, Tuirihiau, Thenzawl is also the main centre for handlooms, Phawngpui, Reiek Peak.
  • A typical Mizo village Falkawn,Hmuifang ,Tlang Tlang .

Nagaland

History and Geography:

  • Nagaland became the 16th state of the Indian Union in 1963.
  • Bordered by Myanmar on the east, Arunachal on the north, Assam on the west and Manipur on the south.
  • Lies between the parallels of 98 degree and 96 degree east longitude and 26.6 degree and 27.4 degree latitude north of the equator.
  • The Naga people belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group of people
  • The major recognised tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Kuki, Konyak, Kachari, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchungrii and Zeliang.
  • The Naga languages,are under the Tibeto-Burman family.
  • 12th and 13th centuries, contacts with the Ahoms was established -not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life.
  • 19th century under British administration.
  • Centrally administered area in 1957, administered by the Governor of Assam known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area.
  • In 1961, the area was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of state which was formally inaugurated in December 1963.

Agriculture

  • 70 per cent of the population depending on agriculture.
  • Rice is the staple food. It occupies about 70 per cent of the total area under cultivation and constitutes about 75 per cent of the total food production in the state.
  • The major land use pattern is slash and burn cultivation.
  •  Total cultivable area is 7,21,924 hectares.

Forest

  • Out of 16,579 sq.km, forest area occupies approximately 8,62,9.30 sq.km
  • Rangapahar wildlife sanctuaries in Dimapur district, Fakim wildlife sanctuaries in Tuensang district and Singphan wildlife sanctuaries in Mon district, Intanki National Park in Peren district and Zoological Park in Dimapur district.

Irrigation

  • Minor irrigations to divert small hill streams to the valleys and terraced field for rice cultivation covering an area of 82,150 hectares.

Power

  • Installed generation capacity of 27.84 MW only from small hydro electric power projects against the requirement of 95 MW.
  • The main source of power is from the Central Sector Power allocation.

Industries

  • 17 Citronella Demonstration Farms (i.e. ‘Economic Plant’).
  •  The Nagaland Handloom and Handicrafts Development Cooperation Ltd, Dimapur is the state owned corporation.
  •  An Industrial Growth Centre has been established at Ganeshnagar, Dimapur.

Transport

  • Airport and railway stations at Dimapur .
  •  National Highway-39 which passes through the state from Dimapur via Kohima to Manipur-soon to be an international route under the Look East Policy of the central government. The rest of the state with roads covering about 24,709 km, including the NH-61 and state highways.
  • Also inter-connected with postal services.

Tourist Centres

  • The Hornbill festival held in the first week of December is an annual event where all tribes of the state come together.
  • . Three traditional festivals, namely Sekrenyi at Touphema in Kohima district (Feb), Monyu at Pongo in Longleng sub-division (April) and Moatsu at Chuchuyimlang in Mokokchung district (May). Music and dances are an intrinsic part of Naga life.
  • Name of the tribes and their festivals are Angami-Sekrenyi, Ao-Moatsu, Chakhesang-Sukhrunye and Tsukhenye, Chang-Naknyulem, KhiamniunganTsokum, Kuki-Mimkut, Konyak-Aoleang Monyu, Kachari-Bushu, Lotha-Tokhu Emong, Phom-Monyu, Pochury-Yemshe, Rengma-Ngada, Sumi-Tuluni, Sangtam-Amongmong, Yimchungru-Metemneo, and Zeliang-Meileingi/Hega Langsimngi/Chegagadi.

Odisha

History and Geography:

  • Most famous old names being Kalinga, Utkal and Odra.
  • Time of Mahavir and Buddha- the Kalinga region- Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga .
  • Mahameghavahana Kharavela ruled in the 1st half of the second century B.C.
  • Great dynasties such as the Shailodvabas, Bhoumakaras, Somavamsis, Gangas
  • Sun Temple at Konark was built in the thirteenth century by Narasimha Deva, the famous Jagannath temple at Puri in the twelfth century by Anangabhima Deva and the Lingaraj temple, Bhubaneshwar in the eleventh century by Jajati-II.
  • Five Muslim kings till 1592 from mid-16th century, when Akbar annexed it.
  •  Marathas occupied Odisha.
  • The British took over the province in 1803.
  • Modern Odisha was born in 1936.
  • Surrounded by West Bengal on the north-east, Jharkhand on the north, Chhattisgarh and Telangana on the west and Andhra Pradesh on the south.

Agriculture

  • Majority of the population is dependant on it as the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2012-13 indicates that farm income has doubled as compared to the survey of 2002-03.
  • Health insurance coverage of ? 1.00 lakh to 5 members of every farming community under “Biju Krushak Kalyan Yojana”.
  • Largest producer of sweet potato in the country and third largest state in production of cashew.
  • Leading supplier of mango graft
  • A special programme for augmentation of production, processing and marketing of tomato, onion and potato has been initiated during 2018-19.

Irrigation

  • The cropped area is about 87.46 lakh hectares out of which 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated.
  • The weather favours a lot of crops, prominent being rice, pulses, oil seeds, jute, roselle, sugarcane, coconut and turmeric.
  • Short gestation projects like mega lift irrigation projects, deep bore well, construction programme and check dam construction programme.
  • The target is to bring an additional 10 lakh hectare of cultivable land under irrigation cover by the end of 2019.
  •  Under Parvati Giri Mega Lift Irrigation work of 171 mega lift schemes including upper indravati lift canal system have been taken up.

Power

  • Energy is the driving force of economic growth government has developed a comprehensive strategy to augment generation.

Industries

  • Most large-scale industries are mineral based, with 25 per cent of the iron ore reserves in the country.
  •  ‘Leader’ in Ease of Doing Business and is consistently ranked amongst the top 3 states.
  • Highest rates of implementation of industrial projects in the country.

Transport

  • Roads: Schemes such as Biju Setu Yojana, Rural Infrastructure Development Fund, Pradhan Mantri Grama Sadak Yojana, and Mukhya Mantri Sadak Yojana.
  • Railways: MoUs with Ministry of Railways for two new projects namely 130 kilometers Jeypore-Malkangiri and 38 kilometers Nabarangpur-Jeypore Government has also offered sharing of 50 percent of land and construction cost for 32 kilometers of Puri-Konark Railway project.
  • Ports: Paradeep Port is declared 8th major port of the country 1966 by Government of India. Only major port in Odisha and the first major port on the East Coast commissioned in Independent India. 13 potential sites for minor ports development. These are located at Gopalpur, Behuda Muhan and Palur in Ganjam district, Baliharchandi and Astaranga in Puri district, Jatadhar Muhan in Jagatsinghpur district, Inchri, Chandipur, Bahabalpur, Kirtania and Bichitrapur (Talasari) in Balasore district and Dhamra and Chudamani in Bhadrak district.
  • Aviation: RCSUDAN Scheme in Utkela and Jeypore Airstrips. Jharsuguda airport is fully developed now.

Tourist Centres

  • Chandipur, Gopalpur, Konark and Puri, Talasari beach,
  • Chilika, the largest brackish water inland lake in Asia nestles in the heart of coastal Odisha.-largest brackish water lagoon in Asia, an important wetland situated in Odisha .Declared a Ramsar site
  • Bhitarkanika is the second largest mangrove eco-system -declared a national park in 1998, situated in the district of Kendrapara, on the eastern coast of India.

Punjab

History and Geography

  • Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region
  • it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryas, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas.
  • Medieval Punjab saw a supremacy of the Muslims.  
  • Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaks, the Lodhis and the Mughals.
  • Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received
    a great impetus.
  • Guru Gobind Singh transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the works of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam-Kada to Bagh-Bahist (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise).
  • After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849.
    Fight against the British rule:
  • Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the freedom movement.

Agriculture

  • star performer during Green Revolution.
  • first wheat surpluses followed by steep rise in production of rice, helped India free itself from the PL 480 food aid and its associated political strings
  • The state ranks 4 the in the world in terms of productivity of wheat
  • 3 per cent of the net area sown in the country.
  • It produces about 17.8 per cent of wheat and 11.3 per cent of rice contributed 25-50 percent of rice and 38-75 percent of wheat to the central pool of food-grains
  • 10.50 per cent GDP to the total agriculture produce.

Aviation

  • two international airports at Amritsar (Rajasansi) and Mohali
  • Four domestic airports at Ludhiana, Pathankot, Bathinda and Adampur.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Maghi Mela at Mukatsar.
  • Holla Mohalla, Baisakhi, Chappar Mela, Skeikh Farid Aagman Purb, 

Rajasthan

History and Geography

  • largest state in India area-wise
  • history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times.
  • Around 3,000 and 1,000 BC,
  • culture akin to that of the Indus Valley civilization
  • Chauhans: dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power
  • All Princely states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate
  • Alliance in 1818.
  • The process of uniting scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States Reorganization Act was promulgated, first came Matsya Union (1948)
  • The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan

Agriculture

  • Principal crops: wheat, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, oilseeds, kharif pulses and cotton.
  • Red chilies, mustard, cumin seeds and methi are commercial crops.

Industry

  • Hindustan Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Hindustan Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu), Hindustan Salt Ltd. at Sambhar (Jaipur)
  • rich deposits: zinc concentrates, emerald, garnet, gypsum, silver, asbestos, felspar and mica
  • Special Economic Zone for gems and jewellery at Sitapura (Jaipur) and Special Economic Zone for handicraft at Boranada (Jodhpur)

Minerals

  • Second only to Jharkhand as regards to mineral wealth
  • radioactive minerals, lignite, petroleum and natural gas.
  • nonferrous  metals such as lead-zinc, copper, ferromagnesian metals such as tungsten,
  • More than 85 % of the country’s potash, lead-zinc, silver and
    wollastonite resources are located in the state.
  • The state possess substantial share of the total resources of potash (94 per cent), lead-zinc ore (89 per cent), wollastonite (88 per cent), silver ore (87 per cent), gypsum (82 per cent), fuller’s earth (74 per cent), diatomite (72 per cent), feldspar (66 per cent), marble (64 per cent), asbestos (61 per cent), copper ore (50 per cent), calcite (50 per cent), talcsoapstone-steatite  (49 per cent), granite (42 per cent), ball clay (38 per cent), rock phosphate (30 per cent), fluorite (29 per cent), tungsten ore (27 per cent), laterite (26 per cent), gold ore (primary) (23 per cent), mica (21 per cent) and china clay (16 per cent).

Jaipur Metro

  • India’s sixth metro rail system after those in Kolkata, Delhi NCR, Bengaluru, Gurugram and Mumbai.
  • first metro in the country to run on double storey elevated road and track

Festivals

  • Teej, Gangaur, Holi-Dhulandi, Kite and Rajasthan Divas (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sherif and Galiakot Pushkar Fair (Ajmer), Ramdevji Cattle Fair (Nagaur), Camel Festival (Bikaner), Desert Festival (Jaisalmer)

Tourists Centres

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu (Sirohi), Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali, Bundi, Kota, Jhalawar, Shekhawati (Sikar) and Chittorgarh
  • Ranthambore National Park (Tiger Reserve)-(Sawai Madhopur),
  • Sariska Tiger National Park (Alwar),
  • Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur),

Sikkim

History and Geography

  • early history of Sikkim starts in the 13th century
  • Chogyal of Namgyal dynasty ruled in Sikkim
  • Events in Sikkim saw the process of democratisation and became an integral part of the Indian Union in 1975.
  • land blessed by Guru Padmasambhava during his sojourn to Tibet in 8th century.
  • world’s third highest mountain, Khangchendzonga, is regarded as the
    guardian deity of Sikkim.
  • is in the eastern Himalayas
  • Sikkim is one of the 18 biodiversity hotspots in the world.
  • Rare and globally threatened: snow leopard, Tibetan argali sheep, red panda, yak, black-necked crane and fairrieanum orchid

Agriculture

  • introduction of crops like baby corn, sweet corn, bringing manifold increase in income to the farming community.

Power

  • The total hydro power potential of Sikkim is around 8,000 MW.

Aviation

  • State has its first airport at Pakyong in East Sikkim.

Tamil Nadu

History and Geography

  • Though early Sangam classics throw historical references it is only from the Pallavas we pass to recorded history.
  • South India remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries.

Pallavas: 

  • supremacy  from fourth century AD
  • originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture 
  • last Pallava ruler was Aparajita
  • 11th century: Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas.
  • Bahamani Sultanate: by the middle of the 14th century
  • At same time, Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India and at the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.
  • The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in
  • quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’.
  • East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam, now in Andhra Pradesh

Agriculture and Irrigation

  • 3 per cent of the national water and 4 per cent land share and supports 6 per cent of the population
  • The state government in an effort to usher in second Green Revolution to double the food grain production and triple  the farmers’ income, has set up a programme for 2019-20.
  • The state had 100 lakh tonne of production for the sixth time in a row and bagged the national Krishi Karman award for five times.
  • ‘Collective Farming’ a revolutionary concept of the state government made a remarkable achievement
  • Mobile App - Uzhavan: IT initiatives for agriculture

Tourism

Five UNESCO declared World Heritage sites, namely,

  1. Shore Temple,
  2. Five Rathas, Arjuna’s Penance - Mamallapuram,
  3. Brahadeeswarar Temple -Thanjavur,
  4. Iravatheeswarar Temple - Darasuram, Brahadeeswarar
  5. Temple -Gangaikonda Cholapuram and Nilgiri Mountain Railway.

Four international airports, namely, Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli and Coimbatore and two major ports Chennai and Thoothukud

Social Welfare Prorammes

  • To promote the education of girls, the Chief Minister’s Girl Child Protection Scheme introduced during 1992
  • Special Homes for Senior Citizens and destitute children  

Geology and Mining

  • contribute substantially to the Gross State Domestic Product and Industrial Growth.
  • lignite, limestone, garnet sand, silica sand, quartz and feldspar, graphite, oil and natural gas, magnesite, iron 
  • world famous black granite and multi colour granite deposits

Ports

  • Major ports are Chennai, Ennore and Thoothukudi. There are 23 declared minor ports

Telangana

Important Facts

  • In 2014 Telangana was formed as 29th state of India with Hyderabad as its capital.
  • Earlier part of Andhra State as per the linguistic reorganisation of states in 1956.
  • Has 10 districts including Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy and Warangal.

History and Geography:

  • Telangana refers to Trilinga Desa-three ancient Shiva temples at Kaleswaram, Srisailam and Draksharamam.
  •  During the Nizams was known as Telugu Angana to differentiate it from the areas where Marathi was spoken.
  • Ruled by great dynasties such as Sathavahanas, Kakatiyas, Chalukyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, Asafjahis.
  • The Kakatiyas contributions to architecture impressive. Prataparudra ruled till AD 1323.
  • The Satavahanas ruled from the 2nd century BC to beyond the 2nd century AD.
  • Movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurred in 1969, 1972 and 2009.
  • 2009 the Government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana-violent protests put on hold in December, 2009.
  • July, 2013 the process of formation of a separate state gained momentum.
  • Bill was placed in the Parliament and in February, 2014 Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Bill was passed.
  • Situated on the Deccan plateau it covers 114,800 sq km (44,300 sq miles).
  • Drained by two major rivers Godavari and Krishna,but most of the land is arid due to higher elevation of most of the state.
  • Drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjeera and the Musi.
  • Surrounded by Maharashtra on north and north-west; Karnataka on the west; Chhattisgarh on the north-east and Odisha lies on its west.

Agriculture

  • Rice is the major food crop of the state.
  • Other important crops are tobacco, mango, cotton and sugarcane.
  •  Major kharif coarse cereals maize, jowar, bajra, ragi .
  • 40.5 per cent is under net area sown, 23.9 per cent is under forests, 10.5 per cent is under current fallow lands, 7.7 per cent is under non-agricultural uses and 5.4 per cent is under barren and uncultivable land.
  • Net cropped area is 46.54 lakh hectares.
  •  Agriculture depends upon the distribution of rainfall.

Arts and Crafts:

  • Handicrafts have been an integral part-bidri crafts, banjara needle crafts, dokra metal crafts, nirmal arts, bronze castings, lacquerware, etc.

Festivals

  • ‘Bathukamma’.
  • “Bonalu” -annual Hindu festival -Goddess Mahakali is worshipped.
  • Dussehra, Samakka Saarakka Jaathara, Peerla Panduga, Ramzan

Tripura

History and Geography:

  • Unique tribal culture and a fascinating folklore.
  • The history of Tripura -from Rajmala chronicles of King Tripura ,Mahabharata and the Puranas.
  •  Rajmala-rulers were known by the surname Fa meaning father-reference to rulers of Bengal helping Tripura kings in the 14th century.
  • Face frequent Mughal invasions with varying successes.
  • Defeated the Sultans of Bengal in several battles.
  • Nineteenth century King Maharaja Bir Chandra Kishore Manikya Bahadur modelled administrative set-up on the British India pattern .
  • 15 October 1949 the state merged with the Indian Union. Initially, ‘C’ State.
  • Centrally administered territory with the Re-organisation of States in 1956.
  • In 1972, attained the status of a full-fledged state.
  • Situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Agriculture:

  • The economy is primarily dependent on agriculture.
  • 24 per cent land is being utilizedand 51 per cent population is dependent.

Irrigation:

  • Hilly state having geographical area of 10,49,169 hectare.
  • Land under cultivation is 2,55,241 hectares. Irrigable land is 1,17,00 hectares.

Tourism

  • To its north, south and south east it has an international boundary with Bangladesh while to its east boundary with two states of Assam and Mizoram.
  • 19 ethnic tribes, Bengali, Manipuri and others.
  • The scenic beauty of Tripura varied culture, archaeology and architecture, handloom and handicraft, verdant forests, and lakes, bracing climatic conditions.

Uttarakhand

History and Geography:

  • In the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavant.
  • The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, Chandras and Panwars and the British have ruled it.
  • Often called the Land of the Gods (Dev Bhoomi) -various holy places and abundant shrines.
  • Earlier part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh which came into existence in 1902.
  • 1935, the name of state was shortened to the United Province.
  • January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.
  • Uttaranchal carved out in 2000 as the 27th state.
  • International boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its northwest lies Himachal Pradesh while on the south is Uttar Pradesh.

Agriculture

  • 90 per cent of the population depends on agriculture.
  • The total cultivated area in the state is 7,67,459 hectare.

Irrigation

  • Agricultural land under irrigation is 5,61,733 hectare..

Power

  • Excellent potential for hydropower generation- projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu, Gauri, Kosi and Kali.

Industries

  • The state is rich in mineral deposits like limestone, marble, rock phosphate, dolomite, magnesite, copper graphite, gypsum, etc.

Transport

  • Roads: The total length of metalled roads is 33,914 km,PWD roads is 25,665 km,local bodies is 2,674 km.
  • Railways: The main railway stations are Dehradun, Haridwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udhamsingh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam.
  • Aviation: Air strips at Jolly Grant (Dehradun) and Pantnagar (Udham Singh Nagar).Naini-Seni (Pithoragarh), Gauchar (Chamoli) and Chinyalisaur (Uttarkashi) are under construction. Pawan Hans Ltd. is also operating helicopter service from Rudraprayag to Kedarnath for pilgrims.

Festivals

  • The world-famous Kumbh Mela/Ardh Kumbh Mela is held at Haridwar at every twelfth/sixth year interval.
  • Other prominent fairs/festivals are Devidhura Mela (Champawat), Purnagiri Mela (Champawat), Nanda Devi Mela (Almora), Gauchar Mela (Chamoli), Baisakhi (Uttarkashi), Magha Mela (Uttarkashi), Uttaraini Mela (Bageshwar), Vishu Mela (Jaunsar Bhabar), Peerane-Kaliyar (Roorkee), and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra held every twelfth year.

Tourist Centres

  • Gangotri, Yamunotri, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Hemkund Sahib, Nanakmatta, etc.
  • Kailash Mansarovar Yatra can be performed through Kumaon region.
  • Valley of Flowers, Pindari Glacier, Roop Kund, Dayara Bugyal, Auli and hill stations like Mussoorie, Dehradun, Chakrata, Nainital, Ranikhet, Bageshwar, Bhimtal, Kausani, Lansdowne, etc..

Uttar Pradesh

History and Geography

  • recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha
  • great sages of the Vedic times like Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkaya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state
  • In the sixth century BC: two new religion: Jainism and Buddhism
  • Sarnath-Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order  Kushinagar-Buddha breathed his last.
  • Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas etc. contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages.
  • The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, shortened to the United Provinces in 1935.
  • In January 1950, the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.
  • The state is bounded by Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Haryana in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south and Bihar in the east.
  • divided into two distinct regions (i) Southern Hills and (ii) Gangetic Plains.

Agriculture

  • main occupation of 66 per cent of the population
  • net cultivated area is 164.17 lakh hectare.

Industry and Minerals

  • mining of limestone, magnesite, coal, rock phosphate, dolomite and silicon-sand
  • large cement plants in Sonebhadra.

 Festivals

  • The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at
    Prayagraj every twelfth year and Ardh Kumbh Mela every sixth year.
  • Magh Mela is also held at Prayagraj
  • Other places: Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya
  • cattle fair is held at Bateswar in Agra district

Tourist Centres

  • Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Dewa Sharief, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahwa and Kaushambi, places like Agra, Ayodhya, Sarnath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Jhansi, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Devgarh, Bithur, and Vindhyachal

West Bengal

History and Geography

  • name of Bengal or Bangla is derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga,
    or Banga.
  • However, Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been
    excavated in the state
  • region was settled by Dravidian, Tibet-Burman, and Austro-Asiatic peoples and was a part of the Vanga kingdom of ancient India.
  • was a part of Magadha empire
  • It was one of the four main kingdoms of India during the times of Mahaveera and Buddha, and consisted of several Janapadas.
  • Bengal was referred to as Gangaridai by the ancient Greeks around 100 BC, meaning, speculatively, a land with the river Ganga in its heart.
  • The first recorded independent King of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around the early 7th century 
  • Later: Buddhist Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years, followed by a shorter region of the Hindu Sena dynasty.
  • Islam came to Bengal in 12th century by Sufi missionaries.
  • The Battle of Plassey in 1757 changed the course of history when the English first gained a strong foothold in Bengal and India as well.
  • Bengal was partitioned in 1905
  • The land frontiers touch Bangladesh in the east and are separated from Nepal in the west, Bhutan lies in the north-east, while Sikkim is on the north. On the west are the states of Bihar and Jharkhand, while in the
    south lies Odisha and the Bay of Bengal washes its southern frontiers. 

Agriculture

  • main source of income for about 70 per cent of the population
  • Jute and rice are the principal crops
  • other crops: tea, maize, tobacco and sugarcane.

Industry

  • State welcomes foreign technology and investment, private sector investment
  • The thrust areas are petrochemicals and downstream industries, electronics and information technology, iron and steel, metallurgical and engineering, textile, leather and leather products, food processing, medicinal plants, edible oil, vegetable processing and aquaculture.

Power and Irrigation

  • Provision of electricity is vital for the socio-economic development  
  • power sector in West Bengal is predominantly thermal

Festivals

  • festivals like the Durga Puja, Poila Baishakh (the Bengali New Year), Rathayatra, Dolyatra or Basanta-Ursab.
  • From Christmas Carnivals to Eid ul-Fitr and Muharram; from Buddha Purnima to the legendary Ganga Sagar Yatra, all celebtrated with great zeal.

Tourism

  • most number of Shaktipeeths in the likes of Kalighat Temple and Tarapith;
    magnificent temples like Belur Math, Mayapur ISKCON Temple, Hangseshwari Temple and Tarakeshwar Temple;
  • opulent mosques like the Nizamat Imambara and Katra Mosque in Murshidabad,
  • dense mangroves of Sunderbans, famed Royal Bengal Tiger

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

History and Geography

  • situated between 6° and 14° latitude and 92° and 94° longitude.
  • Islands located north of 10° north latitude are known as Andaman Group of Islands
  • islands located south of 10° north latitude are called Nicobar Group of Islands
  • Climate: humid, tropical coastal climate
  • Rainfall from both the south-west and north-east monsoons
  • original inhabitants: There are four Negrito tribes, viz., Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinalese in the Andaman Group of Islands and two Mongoloid tribes, viz., Nicobarese and Shompens in the Nicobar Group of Islands.

Agriculture

  • only 6 per cent of area
  • Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman Group of Islands
  • coconut and arecanut are the cash crops of Nicobar Group of Islands. 
  • Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown
  • Spices, viz. pepper, clove, nutmeg and cinnamon are grown
  • Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these Islands.

Forests

  • tropical wet evergreen, tropical semievergreen, moist deciduous, littoral mangrove and swamp forests.
  • A large variety of timbers are also found.
  • most valuable timbers are padauk and gurjan.

Wildlife

  • 96 wildlife sanctuaries, 9 national parks and 1 biosphere reserve
  • dugongs, dolphins, whales, salt water crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes, etc., are common.
  • Reefs are mostly fringing type on eastern coast and barrier type on the western coast

Industry

  • 1833 registered MSMEs and handicrafts units.
  • Two units are 100 per cent export oriented in the line of fish/prawn processing activity.

Tourism

  • Recognised as an  eco-friendly tourist’s destination
  • historic Cellular Jail, Ross and Havelock Islands.  
  • North Bay, Viper Island, Ross Island, Chidiya Tapu, (Bird watching), Red Skin Island, Corbyn’s Cove Beach, Islands like Neil Island, Havelock Island, Cinque, Little Andaman, Diglipur (Ross and Smith), etc.

Chandigarh

History and Geography

  • fully grown town of most modern architectural splendour.
    enjoys the popular epithet the “City Beautiful”.
  • city is a creation of the French architect, Le Corbusier.
  • constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966. 
  • serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana states.

Rural Development

  • to sensitize the poor and weaker sections different benefits being extended to them by the State Legal Services Authority
  • Cement concrete paving and underground drains in villages

Information Technology

  • role model in using Information Technology to provide fast and user friendly services to the masses

Industries

  • Phase-III of the industrial area at the revenue estate

Power

  • sufficient electricity to all the residents is also getting attention
    of the administration
  • all institutional buildings will have to provide solar lighting in their parking spaces

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

History and Geography

  • The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation in 1954. 
  • From 1954 till 1961 the territory functioned almost independently by what was known as ‘‘Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli Administration’’.
  • territory was merged with the Indian Union in 1961
  • Varishtha Panchayat was working as an advisory body of the administration. This was dissolved in August 1989
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli has an area of 491 sq km and it is surrounded by Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  • The nearest railway station is at Vapi which is 18 km from Silvassa, which is also the capital of this UT

Agriculture

  • predominantly rural area with about 79 per cent tribal population.
  • Major crop is paddy (Kharif) while Nagli and hill millets are the other crops
  • Among fruits mango, chiku, banana, etc., are also produced. 
  • Forests cover 40 per cent of the total geographical area

Industry

  • Prior to 1965-66 there was no industry.  
  • With the inception of the economic liberalization policy, a real boost in industrial development was seen. There are 1863 small sector industrial units and 430 MSI/LSI units functioning

Irrigation and Power

  • Prior to liberation of the territory, there was no irrigation facility and
    cultivators had to fully depend upon rainfall.
  • After the merger of the territory, So far 128 lift irrigation schemes havebeen completed

Transport

  • depends heavily on Maharashtra and Gujarat road network as the territory can be accessed only after crossing these two states from Mumbai.
  • road length is about 635 km  
  • Mumbai is the nearest airport.

Tourism

  • assigned high priority, keeping in view the dense forest area and favourable climate.
  • The prominent places of tourist interest are Tadekeshwar Shiva Mandir, Bindrabin, Deer Park at Khanvel, Vanganga Lake and Island Garden, Dadra
  • Celebration of festivals like Tarpa and World Tourism Day is a regular event

Festivals

  • Diwaso is celebrated by Dhodia and Varli tribes and Raksha Bandhan is celebrated by Dhodia tribe. Other festivals include Bhawada amongst Varlis, Koli tribes and Khali Puja by all tribes after harvesting of crops and Gram Devi before harvesting of crops.

Daman and Diu

History and Geography

  • Daman and Diu along with Goa was a colony held by the Portuguese even after Independence
  • In 1961, it was made an integral part of India. After Goa was conferred statehood on 30 May 1987, Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory. 
  • Daman lies about 193 km away from Mumbai. It is bound on the east by Gujarat, on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the north by the Kolak river and on the south by Kalai river.
  • The neighbouring district of Daman is Valsad in Gujarat. Diu is an island connected by two bridges.
  • The neighbouring district of Diu is Junagadh of Gujarat

Agriculture and Irrigation

  • Total irrigated area is 393.93 ha and unirrigated is 3304.73 ha. Important field garden crops are paddy, ragi, bajra, jowar, groundnut, pulses and beans, wheat, banana, sapota, mango, coconut and sugarcane.
  • There are no major forests in the territory.

Industry and Power

  • 2930 small-scale and medium-scale industries in Daman and Diu.
  • Two industrial areas have been developed by Omnibus Industrial Development Corporation at Daman. The other industrial areas are Dabhel, Bhimpore, Kachigam and Kadaiya.
  • All villages have been electrified.

Transport

  • There are airports both in Daman and Diu. Diu is connected by air and
    there is regular air service from Mumbai.
  • There is no railway link with Daman and Diu. The nearest railway
    station from Daman is Vapi 
  • The total length of roads is 191 km and 78 km respectively.

Tourist Places

  • Jesus Church; Our Lady of Sea Church; Our Lady of Remedios Church; Forts of Moti Daman and Nani Daman; Jampore and Devka Beaches;

Delhi

History and Geography

  • Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic
    Mahabharata. 
  • Its control passed from one ruler/dynasty to another, beginning
    with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas of Central India and then going on to the Turks of Afghan during the 13th to 15th centuries, and finally to the Mughals in the 16th century.
  • In the latter half of the 18th century, British rule was established. 
  • In 1911, Delhi became the centre of all activities after the capital was shifted from Kolkata (Calcutta). 
  • Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the east where it borders with Uttar Pradesh.
  • The 69th constitutional amendment is a milestone in Delhi’s history as it got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital Territory Act, 1991.

Agriculture

  • Principal food crops are wheat, bajra, jowar, gram and maize emphasis has now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy and poultry farming, floriculture

Industry

  • Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India, but also the largest centre of small industries.
  • manufacture a wide variety of items like television, tape recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, sports goods, bicycles and PVC goods including footwear, textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, software, etc. 

Irrigation and Power

  • Due to fast urbanisation of the rural areas of Delhi, cultivable command area under irrigation is getting reduced day by day. 
  • Two schemes, namely, ‘‘Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme Phase-III’’ and ‘‘Improvement and Extension of Effluent Irrigation System from Coronation Treatment Plant’’ are under execution.
  • The availability of power for Delhi from its own generating units at Rajghat Power Houses, IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Station is of the order of 850-900 MW.
  • The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid. Delhi has also envisaged a number of generating projects to be taken up.
  • Delhi is now served by two of the best electric utilities in India, BSES and Tata Power (NDPL).

Transport

  • Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India.  
  • Three airports—Indira Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for domestic air services and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes
  • Five important railway stations — Delhi Junction, New Delhi Railway Station Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Station and Sarai Rohilla Railway Station.
  • The metro rail project runs in Delhi. Now Delhi Metro comprises six lines 

Festivals

  • Being a cosmopolitan city, all major festivals of India are celebrated here.

Tourist Places

Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutab Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narain Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun’s Tomb, Lotus Temple, Akshardham, etc.  

Jammu and Kashmir

History and Geography

  • includes 78,114 sq km under illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5,180 sq km illegally handed over by Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq km under illegal occupation of China. The population figures exclude population of areas under unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China where census could not be taken.
  • A/c to  Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained off the water, making it a beautiful abode.
  • geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir,
  • Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3 century B.C. which was later strengthened by Kanishka.
  • Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. 
  • The valley regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain empire. After the decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers.
  • There was a synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures.
  • Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) extended his rule up to Bengal in the east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the north-west and Tibet in the north-east. 
  • Islam came to Kashmir during 13th and 14th centuries  
  • Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim ruler
  • In 1586 Akbar conquered Kashmir.
  • In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the control of the Mughal emperor to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. 
  • Name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata and artefacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods.
  • It was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947 when Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October 1947.

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation

  • to provide for reorganisation of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir into the two union territories-one to be eponymously called Jammu and Kasjmir, and the other Ladakh, 
  • State Legislature including Legislative Council of the State’ has been abolished and shall now onwards be construed as ‘Legislative Assembly of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir’

Transport

  • The UT is connected to the rest of the country through just one highway (NH 1A)
  • railway network is still in infancy stage
  • The Jammu-Srinagar National Highway (NH1A) is considered to be the most expensive road for maintenance in the world.
  • Aviation: There are three major airports providing aerial transport. Srinagar airport has been upgraded as international airport (named as Sheikh-ul-Alam Airport), while the facilities at Jammu have also been upgraded.

Agriculture

  • 70 per cent of the population
  • Economy continues to be predominantly agrarian as 49 per cent (2011)  of the total working force with 42 per cent as cultivators
  • 7 per cent as agriculture labourers 
  • Export of rare produce like saffron, honey and basmati

Irrigation

  • only 50 per cent of the ultimate irrigation potential of the state has been harnessed.
  • The ultimate irrigation potential has been assessed at 1,358 thousand hectare,

Horticulture

  • well known for its horticulture produce both in India and abroad
  • cultivation of all types of horticulture crops covering a variety of temperate fruits like apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almonds, cherry and sub-tropical fruits like mango, guava, citrus, litchi, etc.
  • Apart from this, well-known spices like saffron and zeera are cultivated in some parts of the state.

Handloom

  • It is also labour intensive cottage industry 
  • government is laying focus on product design and diversification, providing credit facilities, enhancing weavers’ productivity through upgradation of skills and use of efficient looms, market access to handloom products.

Tourism

  • Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine.
  • Lush green forests, sweet springs, perennial rivers, picturesque alpine scenery and pleasant climate of Kashmir valley

Fairs and Festivals

  • Diwali, Holi, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Milad-un-Nabi.

Lakshadweep

History and Geography

  • Not much is known of the early history of these Islands.
  • inhabited first by Amini, Andrott, Kavaratti and Agatti.
  • earlier believed that the islanders were originally Hindus and later
  • converted to Islam under the influence of Arab traders sometime in the 14th century
  • But archaeological evidences unearthed indicate that there were
    Buddhist settlements around the 6th or 7th century.
  • Probably independent till 16th century the Islands were driven to seek the
    assistance of Raja of Chirakal to help them avert establishment of Portuguese domination.
  • in 1787, Tipu Sultan acceded to the petitions of the Northern Islands to annex these Islands. After the fall of Tipu Sultan, the Islands were passed to East India Company 
  • In 1956, the Islands were constituted into a single territory
  • Consists of 11 inhabited Islands, 16 uninhabited Islands, 3 reefs and 6 submerged sand banks. 

Agriculture

  • Coconut is the only major crop with a production of 60 million nuts per year
  • Lakshadweep coconut is branded as an organic product. In India, Lakshadweep stands first in coconut production and productivity per hectare
  • Lakshadweep coconuts are the highest oil content nuts in the world (82 per cent).

Fisheries

  • Fishing is another major activity. The sea around the Islands is highly productive. The Islands stand first in the country in per capita availability of fish.

Industries

  • Coconut fibre extraction and conversion into fibre products is the main industry in the Islands.
  • These units produced coir fibre and coir yarn in addition to other coir products like curled fibre, corridor mat, mat and mattings. A few coir twisting units also function in private sector.

Transport

  • At present M.V. Kavaratti, M.V. Arabian Sea, M.V. Lakshadweep Sea, M.V.
  • Bharat Seema, M.V. Amindivi and M.V. Minicoy accommodate the passenger traffic in mainland-islands and inter-island sector.
  • The administration operates two Pawan Hans helicopters on charter for the inter-Island service and evacuation of patients from Islands to Kavaratti/Agatti and mainland.

Tourist Centres

  • Tourism is developing into an important industry. Important tourist places are Agatti, Bangaram, Kalpeni, Kadmat, Kavaratti and Minicoy, etc

Ladakh

 

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 was enacted to provide for reorganisation of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir into the two union territories - one to be eponymously called Jammu and Kashmir, and the other Ladakh.
  • The union territory of Ladakh has two districts - Kargil and Leh - with each having its autonomous district council.
  • These councils work with village panchayats to take decisions on economic development, healthcare, education, land use, taxation and local governance.
  • It has its own police force headed by a Director General of Police.
  • Ladakh does not have an elected legislative assembly or chief minister.

Puducherry

History and Geography

  • An ex-French enclave, comprises four isolated region of Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. 
  • was once the original headquarters of the French Government in India
  • French Government handed over the administration of their territories in November 1954.
  • Later it was constituted into UT.
  • Puducherry region is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the three sides by Tamil Nadu as a conclave of Cuddalore and Villupuram districts of Tamil Nadu.

Agriculture

  • to enhance the area under pandal cultivation and to improve the production potential the formers are encouraged for cultivation of gourd vegetables
  • Assistance of 50 per cent subsidy to a maximum of 1 lakh per acre is being provided.

Industry

  • total area of 479 sq.km with a total population of 12.44 lakh as per last census.
  • reputation of being an investor-friendly, proven track record of attracting surplus investment
  • Puducherry has nearly 77 large and 9,067 micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and with an investment of ? 2909 cores, these industries are deemed to be the life blood of economy providing employment to about one lakh persons.

Tourism

  • The old part of the UT is known as Boulevard Town since it is bounded by
    four boulevards
  • The Boulevard Town presents two distinct architectural styles in the Tamil and
    French Quarters, which are separated by a canal and unified by a rectilinear grid plan
  • Arikanmedu, a famous historical site that was discovered by the Romans in 200 B.C and is being excavated
  • Aayi Mandapam, a monument built during the reign of Napoleon III
  • De Sacre Coeur De Jesus or Church of Sacred Heart of Jesus, known for its Gothic architecture
  • Mansion of Ananda Rangapillai, a fine specimen of Indo-French architecture

Electricity

  • power requirement of the union territory is met from the power allocations made by the Government of India
  • Gas-based power plant of capacity 32.5 MW at Karaikal region

Comment

Upload File