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Transport

26- TRANSPORT

Introduction

A well-knit and coordinated system of transport plays an important role in the sustained economic growth of the country. The present transport system of the country comprises several modes of transport including rail, road, coastal shipping, air transport, etc. Transport has recorded substantial growth over the years both in the spread of the network and in the output of the system. The Ministry of Shipping and the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways are responsible for the formation and implementation of policies and programs for the development of various modes of transport to save the railways and civil aviation.

Railways

  • The Railways in India provide the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers.
  • The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force during the last more than 164 years.
  • From a very modest beginning in 1853, when the first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane, a distance of 34 kms, Indian Railways have grown into a vast network of 7,349 stations spread over a route length of 67,368 km with a fleet of 11,461 locomotives, 53,453 passenger service vehicles, 6,714 other coaching vehicles, and 2,77,987 wagons.
  • The rolling stock fleet of Indian Railways in services comprised 39 steam, 6,023 diesel, and 5,399 electric locomotives.
  • Currently, the Railways are in the process of inducting new designs of fuel-efficient locomotives of higher horse power, high-speed coaches, and modern bogies for freight traffic.
  • Modern signalling like panel inter-locking, route relay inter locking, centralized traffic control, automatic signaling and multi-aspect color light signaling are being progressively introduced.
  • About 35.32 percent of the route kilometre and 47.09 percent of running track kilometre and 48.26 per cent of total track kilometre is electrified.
  • The network is divided into 17 zones. Divisions are the basic operating units.

17 zones and their respective headquarters

ZONAL RAILWAYS

HEADQUARTERS

Central

Mumbai

Eastern

Kolkata

East Coast

Bhubaneshwar

East Central

Hajipur

Northern

Delhi

North Central

Prayagraj

North Eastern

Gorakhpur

Northeast Frontier

Guwahati

North Western

Jaipur

Southern

Chennai

South Central

Secunderabad

South Eastern

Kolkata

South East Central

Bilaspur

South Western

Hubli

Western

Mumbai

West Central

Jabalpur

Metro Railway

Kolkata

  • Since the inception of the planned era in 1950-51, Indian Railways have implemented nine five-year plans, apart from annual plans in some years.

Central Public Sector Enterprises:

  • There are thirteen undertakings under the administrative control of the Ministry of Railways.

Research and Development:

  • The Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) at Lucknow is the R&D wing of Indian Railways.
  • It functions as a consultant in technical matters.

Railway Finance:

  • Though a part of the overall financial figures of the Government of India, the Railway Budget was being presented separately to Parliament since 1924- 25 owing to the Separation Convention of 1924.
  • The Railways had its own 16 demands for grants, which also used to be considered and passed by the Parliament separately.
  • The main reason behind the Separation Convention was to secure stability for civil estimates as the Railway finance used to be a sizeable part of the general finances.
  • The Government decided to merge the Railway Budget with the General Budget from 2017-18.
  • This merger would facilitate multimodal transport planning between highways, railways and waterways.

Passenger Business:

  • During 2018-19, the number of originating passengers on IR was 8,438 million vis-a-vis 8,286 million during the last year, registering an increase of 1.83 percent.
  • The passenger earnings during this period was ? 51,066.64 crores up by ? 2,423.50 crores (4.98 percent) compared to the earnings during 2017-18.

Railway Electrification:

  • In the pre-independence period, electrification remained confined to 388 Route Kilometers (RKMs) and it is only in the post-independence period that further electrification was taken up.
  • By March 2018, electrification was been extended to 29,376 RKMs out of the total rail network of 67,368 RKMs.
  • This constitutes 44.85 percent of the total railway network.

Rail Tourism:

  • IR is the prime mover of tourism in the country by connecting various tourist destinations across the country by rail.
  • In addition, it has taken several initiatives to promote tourism such as the operation of tourist trains/coach services on popular tourist circuits in different regions of the country, offering tour packages.

Roads

  • The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways was formed in 2009 by bifurcating the erstwhile Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport, and Highways into two independent ministries.
  • The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations, and laws relating to road transport and transport research.
  • It encompasses construction and maintenance of national highways (NHs), administration of Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 and Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989, National Highways Act,1956 and National Highways Fee (Determination of Rates and Collection) Rules,2008, formulation of broad policies relating to road transport, environmental issues, automotive norms, etc. besides making arrangements for movements of vehicular traffic with neighboring countries.
  • India has about 58.98 lakh kms of the road network, which is the second-largest in the world.
  • This comprises national highways, expressways, state highways, major district roads, other district roads, and village roads.
  • The breakup is:
    • National highways/expressways– 1,32,500 kms
    • State highways– 1,56,694 kms
    • Other roads–56,08,477 kms. Totalling to 59,97,671 kms.
  • The Ministry has been entrusted with the responsibility of development and maintenance of national highways (NHs).
  • All roads other than national highways in the states fall within the jurisdiction of respective state governments.
  • In order to assist the state governments in the development of state roads, central government also provides financial assistance out of the Central Road Fund (CRF) and Inter-State Connectivity and Economic Importance (ISC & EI) Scheme.
  • Some of the major National Highways constructed under this program include Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) connecting 4 major metropolitan cities viz., Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata, North-South & East-West Corridors (NS-EW) connecting Srinagar to Kanyakumari and Silchar to Porbandar with a spur from Salem to Cochin, road connectivity of major ports of the country to national highways.

Development and Maintenance of National Highways:

  • The Government is implementing the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), the largest Highways Project ever undertaken in the country since 2000.
  • The NHDP was mainly being implemented by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) and National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd. (NHIDCL), and is spread over seven phases with an estimated expenditure of about ? 6,00,000 crore.

Bharatmala Pariyojana:

  • The Ministry has taken up a detailed review of NHs network with a view to developing the road connectivity to border areas, development of coastal roads including road connectivity for non-major ports, improvement in the efficiency of national corridors, development of economic corridors, inter corridors and feeder routes along with integration with Sagarmala, etc., under Bharatmala Pariyojana.
  • The Bharatmala Pariyojana envisages the development of about 26,000 km length of economic corridors, which along with Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) and North-South and East-West (NS-EW) Corridors are expected to carry the majority of the freight traffic on roads.
  • Further, about 8,000 km of inter corridors and about 7,500 km of feeder routes have been identified for improving the effectiveness of economic corridors, GQ and NS-EW Corridors.
  • The program envisages the development of Ring Roads/bypasses and elevated corridors to decongest the traffic passing through cities and enhances logistic efficiency; 28 cities have been identified for Ring Roads; 125 choke points and 66 congestion points have been identified for their improvements.

Setu Bharatam:

  • In order to ensure a safe and smooth flow of traffic, the Ministry has envisaged a plan for replacement of level crossing on national highways by Road Over Bridges (ROBs)/Road Under Bridges (RUBs) under a scheme known as Setu Bharatam.

Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana:

  • This project envisages the development of easy access to the four prominent Dhams, namely, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, and Badrinath, Roads in Uttarakhand.
  • These four Dhams are prominent pilgrimage centers.
  • The project entails the development of 889 km of roads with the configuration of two-lane with paved shoulders.

National Highways Authority of India:

  • The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) was set up under the NHAI Act, 1988.
  • It has been entrusted with the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), which along with other minor projects, has vested in it 50329 kms of national highways for development, maintenance, and management.
  • Objective:
    • Adoption of bid criteria to ensure healthy competition in the award of contracts
    • Implementation of projects conform to best quality requirements
  • The total length of NH (including expressways) in the country is 1,32,499 kms.
  • While highways/expressways constitute only about 1.7 percent of the length of all roads, they carry about 40 percent of the road traffic.

National Highways Development Project:

  • The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate, and widen major highways in the country to a higher standard.
  • The project was started in 1998.
  • This project is managed by NHAI under the Ministry of Road, Transport, and Highways.
  • It represents 49,260 km of roads and highways work and construction in order to boost the economic development of the country.
  • The NHDP has been subsumed in the ongoing Bharatmala project.

National Highways & Infrastructure Development Corporation:

  • The NHIDCL is a fully owned company of the Ministry that exclusively carries out the task of construction/ up-grading/widening of national highways in parts of the country which share international boundaries with neighboring countries in order to promote regional connectively with neighboring countries on a sustainable basis.

Indian Academy of Highway Engineers:

  • Indian Academy of Highway Engineers (IAHE) is a registered society under the administrative control of the Ministry.
  • It is a collaborative body of both central and state governments and was set up in 1983.
  • Objective: Fulfilling the long-felt need for training of highway engineers in the country, both at the entry-level and during the service period.

Major Initiatives

  • National highways constitute just two percent of the country’s road network but carry 40 percent of the traffic load.
  • There are plans to expand the network of national highways so that all parts of the country have an easy access to it.
  • The North East Region, backward and interior areas, border connectivity roads, coastal roads, and economically important routes are being given special attention in terms of building road connectivity.

National Registry of Vehicle and License Records:

  • Transport Mission Mode Project has successfully automated RTO operations, set up a consolidated transport database.
  • The salient aspects of this Mission Mode Project are two flagship applications - Vahan and Sarathi. While Vahan consolidates vehicle registration, taxation, permit, fitness, and associated services across the country, Sarathi looks after the driving license, learner licence, driving schools, and related activities.
  • The database is integrated with Aadhaar for biometric authentication and e-KYC, integration with digilocker.

Road Safety

  • The Government has approved a National Road Safety Policy so as to minimize road accidents.
  • It outlines various measures such as promoting awareness, establishing road safety information data base, identification and rectification of road accident black spots, improving road accident data improving vehicular safety standards, encouraging safer road infrastructure etc.
  • To enhance passenger safety and especially the safety and security of women and children in transit, all the passenger buses and taxis are mandated to be fitted with GPS devices and panic buttons to enable real-time tracking and interventions in times of crisis.

e-Tolling:

  • The Government has implemented a nationwide Electronic Toll Collection based on passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) conforming to EPC Gen-2, ISO 18000-6C standards.
  • It provides for electronic collection of toll through FASTags.
  • The project was first launched in 2015.

National Green Highways Project:

  • The Green Highways (Plantation Transplantation Beautification and Maintenance) Policy was firmed up in 2016.
  • The Policy aims to develop eco-friendly national highways with the participation of the community, farmers, NGOs, and the private sector.
  • The initial plantation drive on 1,500 km of national highways at a cost of about ? 300 crores was launched as part of the Policy.

Shipping

  • The Ministry of Shipping was formed in 2009 by bifurcating the erstwhile Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport, and Highways into two independent ministries.
  • The Ministry of Shipping encompasses within its fold shipping and port sectors which also include shipbuilding and ship repair, major ports, and inland water transport.
  • It is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to shipping.
  • It has been entrusted with the responsibility to formulate policies and programs on these subjects and their implementation.

Maritime Development:

  • India has a long coastline of about 7,517 km, spread on the western and eastern shelves of the mainland and also along with the Islands.
  • It is an important natural resource for the country’s trade.
  • Approximately 95 percent of the country’s trade by volume and 68 percent by value is moved through maritime transport.

Sagarmala Programme:

  • To harness the coastline, 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic location on key international maritime trade routes, the Government of India has embarked on the ambitious Sagarmala Programme to promote port-led development in the country.
  • The vision of the Programme is to reduce the logistics cost of EXIM and domestic trade with minimal infrastructure investment.
  • Objectives: Port modernization, new port development, port connectivity, coastal community development, etc.

Shipping Industry:

  • Shipping plays an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy, especially in Exim trade.
  • Approximately 95 percent of the country’s trade in terms of volume and 68 percent in terms of value is moved by sea.
  • The salient features of India’s shipping policy are the promotion of national shipping to increase self-reliance in the carriage of the country’s overseas trade and protection of stakeholder’s interest in Exim trade.

Ship Building:

  • The Indian shipbuilding industry continued to concentrate on defence, coastal and inland vessels.
  • The fleet expansion plans of the Indian Navy and the vessels for the Indian Coast Guard are the two prime segments which were targeted by the Indian shipyards.

Ship Repair:

  • The Indian share in the global ship repair market continued to be low as there was very little capacity addition.
  • Indian ship owners continued to rely on overseas repair facilities owing to insufficient capacity and high level of taxation.
  • There are 27 shipyards in the country, 6 under the central public sector, 2 under state governments, and 19 under the private sector.

Ship Recycling:

  • India has a 25-30 percent share in the global ship recycling industry.
  • Ship recycling is carried out mainly at Alang-Sosiya in Gujarat.
  • Started in February 1983, Alang-Sosiya is the largest ship recycling yard in the world.
  • Approximately 10 km long seafront on the western coast of the Gulf of Cambay adjoining to Alang-Sosiya village has been developed as a ship recycling yard.
  • It has a high recycling potential of more than 450 ships per annum.
  • Ship recycling serves the nation by producing about more than 3.5 million ton per annum of re-rollable steel without exploiting the natural resources.

Major Ports

  • Ports provide an interface between ocean transport and land-based transport and play a vital role in the overall economic development.
  • There are 12 major ports and about 200 non-major ports along India’s coastline which is about 7517 km.
  • Major ports:
    • East coast: Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Kamarajar (Ennore), Chennai and V.O. Chidamananar.
    • West coast: Cochin, New Mangalore, Mormugao, Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Sheva, Navi Mumbai) and Deendayal (erstwhile Kandla).
  • The major ports are under the direct administrative control of the central government and fall in Union List 7th Schedule of Constitution.
  • Ports other than the major ones are under the jurisdiction of the respective maritime state government and fall in the Concurrent List.
  • Of the total traffic handled by all Indian ports, 57 percent is handled by major ports and 43 by others.

Major Ports

Kolkata Port

  • It is the only riverine major port in the country having been in existence for about 138 years.
  • It has a vast hinterland comprising entire Eastern India including West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, U.P., M.P., Assam, North East hill states, and the two landlocked neighboring countries namely, Nepal and Bhutan.

Paradip Port

  • It is one of the major ports of the country.
  • The government of India took over the management of the port from the state government in 1965.
  • The Government of India declared Paradip Port Trust (PPT) as the eighth major port the country making it the first major port in the east coast commissioned in independent India.

New Mangalore Port

  • It was declared the ninth major port in 1974 inaugurated in 1975.
  • The port has 16 berths and one single point mooring with a total capacity of 87.63 MTPA.

Cochin Port

  • The modern port of Cochin was developed during the period 1920-1940 due to the untiring efforts of Sir Robert Bristow.
  • Cochin was given the status of a major port in 1936.
  • The administration of the port got vested in a Board of Trustees in 1964 under the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963.
  • It is a natural gateway to the vast industrial and agricultural produce markets of South-West India.
  • The hinterland of the port includes the whole of Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
  • Cochin with its proximity to the international sea route between Europe and the Far East and Australia can attract a large number of container lines offering immense business opportunities.

Jawaharlal Nehru Port

  • Constructed in the mid 1980’s and commissioned in 1989.
  • It is a trendsetter in port development in India through new initiatives like private sector participation.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port is an all-weather tidal port.

Mumbai Port

  • It is a fully integrated multi-purpose port handling container, dry bulk, liquid bulk and break bulk cargo.
  • It has extensive wet and dry dock facilities to meet the normal needs of ships using the port.

Chennai Port

  • It is an all-weather artificial harbour with one outer harbour and one inner harbour with a wet dock and a boat basin with round the clock navigation facilities.

Mormugao Port

  • Mormugao Port, situated on the west coast of India, is more than a century-old port.
  • It has modern infrastructure capable of handling a wide variety of cargo.
  • It is a natural harbour protected by a breakwater and also by a mole.
  • A deep draft channel with 14.4 mtrs. depth permits large vessels to enter the harbour.

V.O. Chidambarnar Port (Tuticorin)

  • It is located strategically close to the east-west international sea routes on the southeastern coast of India.
  • It is located in the Gulf of Mannar, with Sri Lanka on the southeast and the large landmass of India on the west.

Deendayal Port (Kandla)

  • It was established in 1950 as a central government project and the Union Government took over Kandla for its development as a major port.

Visakhapatnam Port

  • It is a natural harbour, was opened to commercial shipping in 1933.
  • It is the only Indian port possessing three international accreditations.
  • It has mechanized handling facilities for iron ore, iron pellets, alumina, fertilizer raw material, crude oil and POL products, liquid ammonia, phosphoric acid, edible oil, caustic soda and other liquid cargoes.

Kamarajar Port Limited (Ennore)

  • It is the 12th major port under the Ministry of Shipping was commissioned in 2001, primarily as a coal port dedicated to handling thermal coal requirements of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB).
  • KPL has the distinction of being the only corporate port amongst the major ports administered by the central government.

Inland Water Transport

  • India has one of the longest navigable and inland water networks.
  • However, cargo transport through these inland waterways is, presently less than 1 percent of the total cargo movement in the country.
  • Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was constituted in 1986, for the development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.
  • 111 inland waterways have been declared as ‘National Waterways’ under the National Waterways Act, 2016.

Jai Marg Vikas Project:

  • Jai Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) is being implemented by the IWAI for the capacity augmentation of the national waterway I on the Haldia–Varanasi stretch of Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system with the technical and financial assistance of the World Bank.

Coastal Shipping

  • Coastal Shipping is fuel-efficient, environment friendly, and helps in easing traffic congestion on roads.
  • In other large economies like China, the USA, and Japan the share of waterways is more than that of India.
  • Presently, the share of waterways in the transportation of domestic goods is less than its potential.

Lighthouses and Lightships

  • In the vast ocean, a mariner is not sure of his position unless he is guided by some signal from the land/space.
  • Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships (DGLL) provides service to enable the mariners to know their position with respect to a fixed point on the land with the help of visual aids to navigation such as lighthouses, light vessels, buoys, beacons, and radio aids.

Directorate General of Shipping, Mumbai:

  • The Directorate General of Shipping, an attached office of the Ministry of Shipping, was established in 1949 for administering the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 on all matters relating to shipping policy and legislation, implementation of various international conventions relating to safety, promotion of maritime education and training, examination and certification, etc.

Shipping Corporation of India Limited:

  • The Shipping Corporation of India (SCI) was formed in 1961 by the amalgamation of Eastern Shipping Corporation and Western Shipping Corporation through ‘Shipping Corporation Amalgamation Order 1961.

Cochin Shipyard Limited:

  • Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL), located in Kochi in Kerala is one of the largest shipyards in the country.
  • The yard has built and delivered over 100 ships including tankers, bulk carriers, port crafts, offshore vessels, tugs, and passenger's vessels.
  • The company has exported around 45 ships over the last decade and is currently building one of the most prestigious warships of the Indian Navy Indigenous Aircraft Carrier.

Andaman and Lakshadweep Harbour Works:

  • Andaman and Lakshadweep Harbour Works (ALHW) a subordinate office under the Ministry of Shipping was established during 1965 for the service of A&N Islands and Lakshadweep Islands.
  • The ALHW is entrusted with the responsibilities of formulating and implementing the program of Ministry of Shipping for providing port and harbour facilities in the islands.

Hooghly Dock and Port Engineers Ltd:

  • Hooghly Dock and Port Engineers Limited (HDPEL), Kolkata became a Central Public Sector undertaking in 1984.
  • The installed capacity in shipbuilding is 1,100 tonnes per annum and in ship-repairs 125 ships per annum.

Civil Aviation

  • The Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible for the formulation of national policies and programs for the development and regulation of the civil aviation sector in the country.
  • It is responsible for the administration of the Aircraft Act, 1934, Aircraft Rules, 1937, and various other legislation pertaining to the aviation sector in the country.
  • Ministry provides guidance to the organization in the implementation of policy guidelines, monitors and evaluates their activities, and also provides their interface with the Parliament.

National Civil Aviation Policy:

  • For the first time since Independence and Integrated Civil Aviation Policy was notified in June 2016.
  • The Policy aims:
    • To take flying to the masses by making it affordable and convenient
    • Enhance ease of doing business through deregulation, simplified procedures and e-governance
    • Promote the entire aviation sector chain covering cargo, MRO, general aviation, aerospace manufacturing and skill development.

Regional Connectivity Scheme:

  • The Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS)-UDAN was envisaged in the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) 2016 with the twin objective of promoting balanced regional growth and making flying affordable for masses.
  • The Scheme, which will be in operation for a period of 10 years, envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through revival of existing airstrips and airports.

Air Sewa:

  • Air Sewa is an initiative of the Ministry of Civil Aviation launched in 2016 to offer people a convenient and hassle-free air travel experience.
  • Air Sewa initiative has integrated various stakeholders in the aviation sector with whom an air traveler has to interact during air travel.

FDI Liberalization:

  • The government of India has raised the FDI limit for 49 to 100 percent in scheduled and non-scheduled air transport services, FDI in scheduled airlines up to 49 percent permitted under the automatic route, and FDI beyond 49 percent through government approval.
  • For NRIs, 100 percent FDI will continue to be allowed under the automatic route.

Directorate General of Civil Aviation:

  • The DGCA is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation and is headed by Director General (Civil Aviation).
  • DGCA is primarily responsible for the regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety, and airworthiness standards.
  • It is also responsible for:
    • Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and monitoring of flight crew standards
    • Regulation of civil aircraft
    • Investigation of minor air incidents
    • Supervision of training activities of flying/gliding clubs and other such regulatory functions
  • The regulations are in the forms of the Aircraft Act, 1934, the Aircraft Rules, the Civil Aviation Requirements (CAR), the aeronautical information circulars.
  • It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security:

  • The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) was initially set up as a cell in the DGCA in 1978, to coordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters.
  • It was reorganized into an independent Department in 1987.
  • BCAS is the regulator for civil aviation security in the country and is responsible for laying down the standards for pre-embarkation security and anti-sabotage measures in respect of civil flights and ensuring their compliance through regular inspections and security audits.
  • Its main responsibility is to lay down standards and measures in respect of security of civil flights at international and domestic airports in India and Indian aircraft operators at foreign airports.

Airports Authority of India:

  • Airports Authority of India (AAI) came into being in April 1995.
  • AAI is a Mini Ratna-Category-IPSE involved in building, upgrading, maintaining, and managing airport infrastructure across the country.
  • It owns and maintains 125 airports (96-operational and 29 - non-operational) comprising 21 international airports (3 - civil enclaves), 8 - custom airports (4 - civil enclaves), 77 – domestic airports, and 19-domestic civil enclaves.

Air Navigation Services:

  • Authority of India (AAI) provides Air Navigation Services (ANS) at all civil airports in the country.
  • GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) is an augmentation system to enhance the accuracy and integrity of GPS signals to meet precision approach requirements in Civil Aviation and it is being implemented jointly by AAI and ISRO.
  • It is fully operational since May 2015 and available on 24 × 7 bases.
  • Presently GAGAN Signal-in-Space is available to users from two geostationary satellites (GSAT-8 and GSAT-10) and third geo-satellite GSAT-15 is in the process of integration with GAGAN system.

Air India:

  • Consequent upon the merger of erstwhile Air India Ltd. and Indian Airlines, a new company viz., National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) was incorporated.
  • Consequently, post-merger, the new entity is known as “Air India” and the appointed date of the merger is 1 April 2007.
  • Air India Ltd. is basically a passenger orientated airlines operating to 72 on - line domestic stations (including Alliance Air) and 42 international destinations in 28 countries.
  • It is in the transport services sector under the administrative control of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.

Pawan Hans Limited:

  • Pawan Hans Limited (PHL) was incorporated in October 1985 (under the name of ‘Helicopter Corporation of India Limited’) as a government company under the Companies Act.
  • It was established with the primary objective of providing helicopter support services to the oil sector in offshore exploration, operate in hilly and inaccessible areas, and make available charter flights for the promotion of travel and tourism.
  • The Company is providing helicopter services to several state governments and the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The Company is also providing helicopter services to NTPC, GAIL, GSPC, and Oil India.
  • Pawan Hans has emerged as one of Asia’s largest helicopter operators having a well-balanced own operational fleet of 43 helicopters at present with pan India presence.

Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi:

  • The Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi (IGRUA) was set up at Fursatganj, Raebareli (Uttar Pradesh) to bring about a quantum improvement in the standards of flying and ground training of commercial pilots in the country.
  • The aim at IGRUA is not only to train to make a pilot but also to make one an effective systems manager in aeronautics.

Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India:

  • The Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA) is a statutory body constituted under the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act, 2008 in 2009.  

Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University:

  • Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University (RGNAU) is a central university under the administrative control of the Ministry.
  • The university has been established by the Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Act, 2013.
  • The University has been envisaged as the premier institution for higher learning within the aviation milieu aimed at providing cutting edge and critical training and research to enhance the aviation industry within India.

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