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Mass Communication

22- MASS COMMUNICATION

Introduction

THE Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, through the mass communication media consisting of radio, television, films, press and print publications, advertising, and traditional modes of communication such as dance and drama, plays an effective role in helping people to have access to the free flow of information. The Ministry is involved in catering to the entertainment needs of various age groups and focusing the attention of the people on issues of national integrity, environmental protection, health care, and family welfare, eradication of illiteracy, and issues relating to women, children, and minorities and other disadvantaged sections of the society. The Ministry functions through its 21 media units/attached and subordinate offices, autonomous bodies and PSUs.

                                

Information Wing

  • It handles policy matters of the print and press media and publicity requirements of the Government.
  • This Wing also looks after the general administration of the Ministry.

Broadcasting Wing

  • It handles matters relating to the electronic media and the regulation of the content of private TV channels as well as the programme matters of All India Radio and Doordarshan and operation of cable television and community radio, etc.
  • Electronic Media Monitoring Centre (EMMC), which is a subordinate office, functions under the administrative control of this Division.

Film Wing

  • It handles matters relating to the film sector.
  • It is involved in the production and distribution of documentary films, development and promotional activities relating to the film industry including training, organization of film festivals, import and export regulations, etc.

Integrated Finance Wing

  • It looks after the financial aspects of the Ministry.

Prasar Bharati

  • Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) is the public service broadcaster in the country, with Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan as its two constituents.
  • It came into existence on November 23, 1997.

Objectives:

The major objectives of the Prasar Bharati Corporation as laid out in the Prasar Bharati Act, 1990 are as follows :

  • To safeguard citizen’s rights to be informed on all matters of public interest and presenting a fair and balanced flow of information
  • To pay special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health and family welfare and science and technology
  • To create awareness about women’s issues and to take special steps to protect the interests of children, the aged and other vulnerable sections of the society
  • To promote social justice, safeguard the rights of working classes, minorities and tribal communities

Prasar Bharati Board:

The Corporation is governed by the Prasar Bharati Board, which comprises:

  • A Chairman
  • An Executive Member (also known as Chief Executive Officer)
  • A Member (Finance)
  • A Member (Personnel)
  • Six part-time Members
  • A representative of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
  • Directors General of All India Radio and Doordarshan as ex-officio Members

Tenure:

  • The Chairman (part-time member): 3 years + subject to an age limit of 70 years.
  • The Executive Member (whole-time member):  5 years + Age limit of 65 years.
  • The Member (Finance) and the Member (Personnel): whole time members - six-year + Age limit of 62 years.

All India Radio

  • The first radio programme was broadcast by the Radio Club of Bombay in June 1923.
  • It was followed by the setting up of a Broadcasting Service that began broadcasting on July 23, 1927 on an experimental basis at Mumbai and Kolkata simultaneously under an agreement between the Government of India and a private company called the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd.
  • When this company went into liquidation in 1930, Indian State Broadcasting Service under the Department of “Controller of Broadcasts” was constituted.
  • The Indian State Broadcasting Service was renamed as All India Radio in January 1936.
  • The first ever FM service was started in Madras on July 23, 1977.
  • AIR has evolved, over the years, a three-tier system of broadcasting namely national, regional, and local.
  • They provide news, music, spoken words, and other programmes in 23 languages and 176 dialects to almost the entire population of the country.
  • The entertainment channel of AIR named Vividh Bharati was started on October 3, 1957, and since November 1, 1967, commercials were aired on this channel.

Channels and Programmes:

  • The phenomenal growth achieved by All India Radio through eight decades has made it one of the largest media organisations in the world.
  • Now, it has 469 stations and 662 transmitters.

Three-Tier Broadcasting”

  • The three-tier system of broadcasting of AIR caters to the information, education, and entertainment needs of the audiences through its stations in this country of continental dimension and with a plural society.

FM Rainbow:

  • FM Rainbow channel of All India Radio was launched at a time when radio listening was declining especially in big cities.
  • FM radio filled this gap effectively by ensuring disturbance-free high-quality music to its listeners.

FM Gold:

  • FM Gold channel went on air on September 1, 2001, at Delhi as a niche infotainment channel with 30 per cent of news and current affairs component and 70 per cent of entertainment programming.
  • At present, FM Gold channel is available daily round the clock.
  • FM Gold channel is available at five places four metros i.e., Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Ludhiana.

DTH Service:

  • DTH Radio Channel is a satellite service meant for the listeners, who own a TV set.
  • The Service is available through the DTH platform of Prasar Bharati with uplinking facilities at Todapur, Delhi.
  • It is not a terrestrial broadcast service and its programmes cannot be tuned in through the ordinary radio receiver sets.
  • It is a 24-hour service broadcast digitally.
  • The DTH Service provides 39 different language channels available in every nook and corner of the country.

News Services Division

  • The News Services Division (NSD) of All India Radio has been expanding its presence across various domains with the aim of reaching a diverse cross-section of people.
  • NSD’s 47 Regional News Units (RNUs) play a vital role to cater to the information needs of the people.
  • RNUs make bulletins and programmes in 77 regional languages/ dialects to make news region-specific and people-friendly.

Sound Archives:

  • The Sound Archives of All India Radio can be called the National Audio Archives of the nation as it is the treasure house of precious recordings of music and spoken word in different categories.
  • It is the largest audio library of Indian Music recordings.
  • The library preserves a separate collection of Mahatma Gandhi’s speeches including his first and the last prayer speeches recorded on May 11, 1947, at Sodepur Ashram, Calcutta and January 29, 1948, at Birla House, Delhi respectively.
  • The only broadcast by Gandhiji from AIR Delhi on November 12, 1947, is also preserved.
  • The library contains recordings of all the Presidents and Prime Ministers of India.
  • Voice recordings of eminent personalities like Rabindra Nath Tagore, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Sardar Patel, Sarojini Naidu etc., have also been preserved.

Doordarshan

  • From an experimental service begun at Delhi in September 1959, Doordarshan (DD) over the years has grown tremendously to become one of the leading TV organizations of the world.
  • Doordarshan is presently operating 34 satellite channels and providing TV coverage to about 92 per cent population of the country.
  • In addition, it is providing free-to-air DTH service.
  • Doordarshan is headed by the Director-General who is responsible for policy formation, planning and development, infrastructure and technology development, budgetary planning and control, human resource development; overseeing operation and maintenance activities, etc.

DD National

  • DD National Channel, a public service broadcaster is the largest terrestrial network in the world.
  • It covers about 92.0 per cent population and 81.0 per cent land area of the country.
  • It contributes to the dissemination of knowledge/education and information for public awareness about means of population control, family welfare, preservation of the environment, ecological balance and measures for women and children welfare.

DD News

  • DD News is the only terrestrial-cum-satellite, the multilingual news channel of the country.
  • DD-News channel was launched in November 2003 by converting DD-Metro into a 24-hours news channel.
  • It is currently producing news content in Hindi, English, Urdu and Sanskrit languages.

DD India

  • Doordarshan opened its windows to the world by launching its international channel on March 14, 1995.
  • The Channel, initially known as DD-World was renamed DD-India in 2002.
  • The programming offers international viewers an update on the Indian social, cultural, political and economic scene.

DD Bharati

  • DD Bharati Channel was re-launched in 2012 as a niche channel for art and culture to preserve Indian culture and heritage with authenticity and to present it to the wider public.
  • It is the only Channel dedicated to art and culture in India.
  • DD Bharati has entered into partnerships with various national and international public institutions and NGOs to acquire premiere programmes available in their archives, after making very judicious selection keeping the profile and audience of the channel in view.

Electronic Media Monitoring Centre

  • In India, Electronic Media Monitoring Centre (EMMC) is entrusted with the task of monitoring the content being aired by TV channels.
  • EMMC is among one of the premier organisations of the world that monitor the broadcasting sector and the content being aired by broadcasters.
  • EMMC records and monitors the content of around 600 channels, beaming over the Indian Territory, so that any violations of codes framed under the Cable Television Network (Regulation) Act, 1995 could be checked.
  • Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 identifies several codes which must be adhered by all broadcasting entities.
  • EMMC identifies topical matters of immense public importance and reports them to the Ministry for evaluation and for taking any action if needed.
  • EMMC also prepares and submits special reports to the Ministry on topics desired by the Government.
  • The newly started wing of EMMC is currently monitoring Community Radio Stations (CRS) for detection of possible violations.

Press and Print Media

Registrar of Newspapers for India

  • The Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI) is an attached office of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • Under its Statutory and derivative functions, it verifies and approves titles of newspapers, registers them, checks and establishes circulation claims.
  • It also submits to the Secretary, I & B by 31st December every year the “Press in India Report”, highlighting the state of Print Media in the country.
  • The report is subsequently published under the title “Press in India”.

Press Information Bureau

  • The PIB is the nodal agency of the Government of India to disseminate information to the print, electronic and social media on government policies, programmes, initiatives and achievements.
  • It functions as an interface between the government and the media and also provides feedback to the government on the reaction of people as reflected in the media.
  • PIB disseminates information through different means such as press releases, press notes, feature articles, backgrounds, press briefings, interviews, press conferences and press tours, etc., to cater to the needs of regional media.
  • PIB also provides accreditation facility to media persons so as to facilitate access to information from the government sources.

News Agencies

Press Trust of India

  • India’s largest news agency, Press Trust of India (PTI) is a non-profit sharing cooperative owned by the country’s newspapers with a mandate to provide efficient and unbiased news to all subscribers.
  •  Founded in August 1947, PTI began functioning from 1949.
  • It offers its news services in English and Hindi languages.
  • Bhasha is the Hindi language news service of the agency.
  • All major TV and radio channels in India and several abroad, including BBC in London, receive its services.
  • Currently, PTI commands 90 per cent of the news agency market share in India.

United News of India

  • UNI was incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 in December 1959 and started functioning effectively from 1961.
  • In the past five decades, UNI has grown into a major news organisation in India.
  • It also has a full- fledged Hindi wire service ‘UNIVARTA’ since 1982.

NAM News Network

  • NNN is the internet-based news and photo exchange arrangement of the news agencies belonging to member countries of the nonaligned movement.
  • Malaysian news agency Bernama is at present handling the operation of the website from Kuala Lumpur.
  • Formally launched in April 2006, NNN replaces the Non-aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) which had acted as the news exchange mechanism among non-aligned countries for 30 years.
  • With the internet a cheap and reliable mode of communication, NNN contributes to the sustained flow of information in the 116 members non-aligned world.

Press Council of India

  • It is a statutory quasi-judicial autonomous authority mandated by the Parliament.
  • Objective:
    • Preserving the freedom of the press and maintaining and improving the standards of newspapers
    • The news agencies in India exercising equal quasi-judicial functions over the authorities as well the press person.
  • It comprises a Chairman and 28 members.
    • Chairman: A sitting or retired judge of the Supreme Court of India,
    • 20 represent various segments of the Press
    • Eight overseeing the readers’ interest are representatives of the two Houses of Parliament (3 Lok Sabha and 2 Rajya Sabha) and premier literary and legal bodies of the country i.e., University Grants Commission, Bar Council of India and Sahitya Akademi.
  • The Council has its own funds for the performance of its functions under the Act that comprises the fee collected from newspapers, other receipts and also grants-in-aid by from the central government.
  • There is also an advisory role on the Council in that it can, either suo-motu or on a reference made to it by the government under Section 13(2) of the Act.
  • The Council discharges its functions primarily through adjudications on complaint cases received by it, either against the press for violation of journalistic ethics or by the press for interference with its freedom.

Photo Division

  • Photo Division, an independent media unit meant for the visual support of the varied activities of the Government of India, is a subordinate office of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and the biggest production unit of its kind in the country in the field of photography.
  • Photo Division was established in late 1959 as a culmination of the government’s decision for establishing a separate department keeping in view the importance of the medium, as the photograph gives the most authentic & truthful record as well as recognize the new medium for right projection, create the archival record under the professional experts.

Publications Division

  • Publications Division, a repository of books and journals highlighting subjects of national importance and India’s rich cultural heritage, was established in 1941.
  • It has emerged as a premier publishing house of the Government of India, enriching national knowledge repository in:
    • Preserving and showcasing India’s heritage with quality publications of history of freedom movement, art and culture, flora and fauna, science, literature, etc.
    • Chronicling the contemporary with bringing out speeches of the Presidents / Prime Ministers, books on contemporary science, economy, history and other subjects.
    • Bringing out children’s literature. 

Journals:

  • Besides books, the Publications Division also publishes 18 monthly journals, which include Yojana in English, Hindi and 11 other languages, Aajkal (Hindi and Urdu), Bal Bharati (Hindi), Kurukshetra (English and Hindi) and a weekly journal Employment News (English, Hindi and Urdu).
  • These journals reflect the initiatives of the Government and the country’s progress in different areas covering a wide range of subjects such as economic development, rural reconstruction, community development, literature, culture, children’s literature and information on employment and career opportunities.

Films Division

  • The aims and objectives of the Division, focused on national perspectives, are to educate and motivate people in the implementation of national programmes and to project the image of the land and the heritage of the country to Indian and foreign audiences.
  • The Division also aims at fostering the growth of the documentary film movement, which is of immense significance for the country in the information, communication and integration.
  • Films Division produces documentaries, short films, animation films and news magazines.
  • It caters to nearly 4000 cinema theatres all over the country and also to the non-theatrical circuits like units of the Directorate of Field Publicity, Doordarshan, educational institutions, film societies and voluntary organizations.

Archival Research Centre:

  • Archival Research Centre (ARC), a multi station research facility by Films Division has been opened on October 26, 2013.
  • Aim: To share the enormous wealth of visual history and visual documentation that Films Division has accumulated since its conception.

International Documentary Film Festival:

  • Since 1990, Films Division organises the biennial Mumbai International Film Festival for Documentary, Short and Animation Films (MIFF).
  • It provides a unique opportunity for filmmakers, producers, distributors, exhibitors and film critics to meet and exchange ideas and concepts.

National Museum of Indian Cinema:

  • The concept of National Museum of Indian Cinema (NMIC) is a unique idea to be pursued for the first time in the history of Indian Cinema.
  • In the last 100 years of Indian Cinema, lot of historical material suitable for the film museum has been destroyed, damaged or not taken care of properly due to lack of restoration and preservation facilities of this kind.
  • The Film Museum will not only provide a store house of information to the laymen but it will also help filmmakers, film students, enthusiasts and critics to know the development of cinema as a medium of artistic expression not only in the country but in all parts of the world, as there is no Film Museum in India.

FD Zone:

  • FD Zone is a collaborative effort of Films Division with independent filmmakers to organize regular curated screenings of documentaries, short films and animation films.
  • For every screening, an independent filmmaker curates on a voluntary basis a mixture of films of Films Division and independent filmmakers.
  • The screenings are free and open to all.

National Film Development Corporation Limited

  • The NFDC, incorporated in 1975, (100 per cent owned GOI body) was formed by the Government of India.
  • Objective: Planning and promoting an organized, efficient, and integrated development of the Indian film industry.
  • NFDC was reincorporated in the year 1980, by merging the Film Finance Corporation (FFC) and Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (IMPEC) with NFDC.
  • The erstwhile Film Finance Corporation (FFC) was set up in 1964, with the primary objective of extending finance to young talented film makers for film production, whereas, the Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (MPEC), an autonomous body, was set up to regulate the import and export of Films and canalization of new stock into the country.

Central Board of Film Certification

  • CBFC is a statutory body under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act, 1952.
  • Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they have been certified by the Central Board of Film Certification.
  • Though the first film in India (Raja Harishchandra) was produced in 1913 by Dadasaheb Phalke, the Indian Cinematograph Act was passed and came into effect only in 1920.
  • Censor Boards (as they were called then) were placed under police chiefs in cities of Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore and Rangoon.
  • After Independence autonomy of regional censors was abolished and they were brought under the Bombay Board of Film Censors.
  • With the implementation of the Cinematograph Act, 1952, the board was unified and reconstituted, as the Central Board of Film Censors.
  • Cinematograph (Certification) Rules were revised in 1983 and since then the Central Board of Film Censors became known as the Central Board of Film Certification.
  • The Board consists of non-official members and a chairman (all of whom are appointed by central government) and functions with headquarters at Mumbai.
  • Initially there were only two grading, U and A. In 1983 two more rating were introduced i.e., UA and S.
  • UA means it can be unrestricted public exhibition but with a word of caution that children below 12 years of age will require the parental guidance, the S category is only for special class of persons like doctors, etc.

Directorate of Film Festivals

  • The DFF was set up in 1973 with the prime objective of promoting good cinema.
  • This is undertaken by organizing a range of activities under these broad categories:
    • The International Film Festival of India
    • The National Film Awards and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award
    • Cultural exchange programme and organizing screening of Indian films through the missions abroad
    • Participation in international film festivals abroad
  • It also provides a powerful platform for Indian cinema and fosters commercial opportunities for Indian films.

International Film Festival of India:

  • The 50th International Film Festival of India (IFFI) was held from November 20 to 28, 2019.
  • It witnessed more than 200 acclaimed films from 76 countries, with Russia as the country of focus.
  • It also includes 26 feature films and 15 non feature films in Indian panorama section.
  • The nine-day long festival of quality cinema concluded with the Indian premiere of Italian film ‘Marghe and Her Mother’.

National Film Awards:

  • The National Film Awards, the highest awards in the field of cinema continue to underline cinematic excellence.
  • The National Awards along with cinema’s highest honour, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, are presented by the President of India.
  • To commemorate the release of the first Indian Feature Film, Raja Harishchandra on 3rd May 1913, It has been decided to confer the National Film Awards on 3rd May of every year.

National Film Archive of India (NFAI)

  • The NFAI was established as a media unit in February, 1964.
  • Objectives :
    • To trace, acquire and preserve for posterity the heritage of national cinema and build up a representative collection of world cinema
    • To classify and document data related to film, undertake and encourage research on cinema and publish and distribute them
    • To ensure the cultural presence of Indian cinema abroad.

National Film Heritage Mission

  • National Film Heritage Mission (NFHM), a prestigious mission of Government of India project was set up in November 2014 for restoring and preserving the film heritage of India.
  • This is a part of 12th Five Year Plan which will spill over to 13th Five Year Plan.
  • This new plan scheme has taken care of digitization/restoration of films available with National Film Archive of India (NFAI).

Children’s Film Society of India

  • Children’s Film Society of India (CFSI) which started functioning in 1955 as an autonomous body under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, is mandated to produce children’s film and exhibit and create and nurture a dynamic child’s culture in the country with a purpose of stimulating their creativity, compassion and critical thinking.

Bureau of Outreach and Communication

  • Bureau of Outreach and Communication (BOC) was created in 2017 by integrating erstwhile Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP), Directorate of Field Publicity (DFP) and Song & Drama Division (S&DD) at national, zonal, regional and field levels and converting them into three separate divisions under the overarching BOC in order to streamline government’s outreach communication in order to have mass reach with specific focus on media dark areas and rural areas and on communicating with people in the form and language understood by them, using different vehicles of communication, viz., print media advertising, audio visual advertising, outdoor publicity, exhibitions, new mediant, etc.
  • Advertising and Visual Communication Division (erstwhile DAVP) is the nodal division of BOC which undertakes campaigns on behalf of various ministries and departments of Government of India, public sector undertakings and autonomous bodies to inform and educate rural and urban people about the government’s policies and programmes through its various vehicles of communication.

Film and Television Institute of India

  • FTII was set up in 1960.
  • Following the addition of Television wing in 1974, the Institute was redesignated as Film and Television Institute of India.
  • The Institute became a Society in October 1974 under the Registration of Societies Act, 1860.
  • The Society consists of eminent personalities connected with film, television, communication, culture, alumni of the institute and ex-officio government members.
  • The Institute is governed by a Governing Council, headed by a Chairman.
  • The academic policies and plans of the Institute are formulated by the Academic Council.
  • The matters involving finance are controlled by the Standing Finance Committee.
  • The Institute consists of two Wings, The Film wing and the TV Wing, and offers courses in both Film and Television.

Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute

  • SRFTI, Kolkata was established as an autonomous educational institution and was registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1961.
  • Named after the legendary film maestro Satyajit Ray, SRFTI is the second national-level film
  • training institute to be established by the Government of India.
  • The institute offers three-year post-graduate diploma courses in direction and screenplay writing, cinematography, editing and audiography.
  • SRFTI is run by a Society constituted by the Government of India.

Indian Institute of Mass Communication

  • The Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC), registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 came into existence in 1965.
  • The Institute was established with the basic objective of undertaking teaching, training and research in the area of mass communication.

Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited

  • BECIL, a profit-making PSE was constituted in 1995 to provide the national broadcasters’ expertise to the private broadcasters in the country.
  • At present, BECIL is an established consultancy agency, system integrator and turnkey solution provider in all spheres of Broadcast Engineering.
  • Its clients include government, semi-government, overseas and private organisations.

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