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National Symbols

2. National Symbols



1. National Flag:

  • It is a tricolour rectangular panel with a ratio of the length to the height (width) to be 3:2. The colour of the flag should be saffron (Kesari), white and India green from top to bottom respectively. Ashoka Chakra in navy blue colour is at the centre with 24 equally spaced spokes. 
  • It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947. 
  • Acts for National Flag: Display of the National Flag is governed by
  1. Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and
  2. Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971).
  3. The Flag Code of India, 2002
  • As per Flag Code of India, 2002, there is no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of the general public, private organizations etc.

2. State Emblem:

  • Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath is the State Emblem of India.  Lion Capital has four lions mounted back to back, on a circular abacus. Relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening Dharma Chakras. The abacus rests on a bell-shaped lotus. 
  • The profile of State Emblem:
    • Three lions mounted on the abacus 
    • A bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left
    • Bell-shaped lotus was omitted
    • “Satyameva jayate”-truth alone triumphs—in Devanagari script
    • Adopted on January 26, 1950
  • It is the official seal of the Government of India. Its use is regulated by the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act.

3. National Anthem:

The song Jana-Gana-mana, composed originally in Bangla by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem on January 24, 1950.

It was first sung on December 27, 1911, at the Calcutta Session of Congress.

4. National Song:

The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji was first sung in the 1896 Calcutta Session of Congress. It has an equal status with Jana-Gana-man. The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo.

5. National Calendar:

  • It is based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957. 
  • National (Saka) Calendar along with the Gregorian calendar is used for the following official purposes:
  1. Gazette of India,
  2. News broadcast by All India Radio,
  3. Calendars issued by the Government of India and
  4. Government communications addressed to the public.
  • Chaitra of National (Saka) Calendar falls on March 22 normally and on March 21 in the leap year of the Gregorian calendar.


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