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Housing and Urban Affairs

17- HOUSING AND URBAN AFFAIRS

THE Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) is entrusted with the responsibility of broad policy formulation and monitoring of programs regarding urban housing and urban development.

 It is the nodal Ministry for the planning and coordination of urban transport matters at the central level.

Urban development is a state subject and the Constitution (Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act, 1992 enjoins upon the state governments to delegate many functions to urban local bodies.

The process of urbanization has been characterized by a dramatic increase in the number of large cities, although India may be said to be in the midst of a transition from a predominantly rural to a quasi-urban society.

The 2030 development agenda of the United Nations has emphasized the role of sustainable cities by incorporating Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), i.e., Sustainable Cities and Communities for making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

As per the Census of India 2011, the population of India is 1,210.50 million, of which 377.10 million (31.2 percent) is urban and 833.40 million (68.8 percent) is rural.

The urban population is located in 7,933 towns, comprising 4,041 statutory towns and 3,892 census towns.

During 2000-11, in absolute terms, the decadal increase in urban population was 90.99 million vis-à-vis 90.97 million in rural population.

At current rate of growth, urban population estimated to reach a staggering 575 million by 2030 and 875 million by 2050.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana—Housing for All (Urban):

  • Mission Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) for ensuring housing for all in urban areas was launched in 2015 which is to be implemented during 2015-22.
  • The Mission provides central assistance to all eligible families/ beneficiaries across all statutory towns for houses included under the mission.
  • States/UTs will have the flexibility to include the Planning Areas (to the exclusion of rural areas) as notified with respect to Statutory Towns and such Planning Areas (to the exclusion of rural areas) as notified by development authorities.
  • The Mission has four verticals:
    • In-situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR) with participation of private developers using land as a resource for providing housing to eligible slum dwellers
    • Affordable housing through credit-linked subsidy scheme
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP) with public and private sectors
    • Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction/enhancements
  • EWS family has been defined as a family with annual income upto ? 3 lakh and LIG with annual income between ? 3-6 lakh.

Progress of the Scheme:

  • The coverage of the Mission was earlier limited to all statutory towns as per Census 2011 and towns notified subsequently.
  • With the last amendment in 2018 coverage is now extended to the entire urban areas consisting of all statutory towns and areas including Notified Planning/development area/industrial development authority/special area development authority/urban development authority or any such Authority under state legislation which is entrusted with the functions of urban planning and regulations.
  • Each state has dedicated state/city level technical cells for implementation and monitoring of the mission.

Smart Cities Mission:

  • The Smart Cities Mission was launched in 2015.
  • The objective of the Mission is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment, and the application of ‘Smart’ solutions.
  • The core infrastructure elements in a smart city would include:
    • Adequate water supply
    • Assured electricity supply; sanitation, including solid waste management
    • Efficient urban mobility and public transport
    • Affordable housing, especially for the poor
    • Robust IT connectivity and digitalization
    • Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation
    • Sustainable environment
    • Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly
    • Health and education
  • The 100 cities under the Mission have proposed to execute 5,151 projects worth ? 2,05,018 crore in 5 years from their respective dates of selection.
  • Under it, 100 Smart Cities have been selected in 4 Rounds based on All India Competition.
  • All 100 cities have incorporated Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs), City Level Advisory Forums (CLAFs) and appointed Project Management Consultants (PMCs).

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation:

  • The AMRUT was launched in 2015.
  • In all, 500 cities have been included in the Mission.
    • All Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) with a population of one lakh or more
    • All other capital cities of states/ UTs
    • All Heritage Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) cities identified cities on the stem of the main rivers, from hill states, islands and tourist destinations.
  • Approximately 60 percent of urban population in the country is covered under AMRUT.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme with a total outlay of rupees one lakh crore including a Central Assistance of ? 50,000 crore spread over 5 years i.e., from 2015-16 to 2019-2020.
  • The balance share of ? 50,000 crores has to come from states and ULBs.
  • The thrust areas of the Mission are water supply, sewerage and septage management, storm water drainage, green spaces and park, non-motorized urban transport and capacity building.

Heritage City Development:

  • The National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY), a central sector scheme of the Government of India was launched in 2015.
  • Aim: Bringing together urban planning, economic growth and heritage conservation in an inclusive manner with the objective of preserving the heritage character of each Heritage City.
  • By November 2018 and after a total outlay of ? 500 crore, the scheme is being implemented in 12 identified cities namely, Ajmer, Amaravati, Amritsar, Badami, Dwarka, Gaya, Kanchipuram, Mathura, Puri, Varanasi, Velankanni and Warangal.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana:

  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has been implementing a centrally sponsored scheme Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) since 2013 for reducing the poverty and vulnerability of urban poor households.
  • The Mission covers all the statutory towns in the country, to be decided by the state as per local need and capability.
    • Its major components include:
    • Social Mobilization and Institutional Development (SM&ID).
    • Employment through Skill Training and Placement (EST&P) for skill development of urban poor.
    • The self-employment program (SEP) provides interest subvention on loans to individuals/groups of urban poor.
    • Support to urban street vendors.
    • Innovative and Special Projects (I&SP)

The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016:

  • Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA) was passed by the Parliament in March, 2016 heralding a new era of transformation in the real estate sector.
  • Objective: To ensure regulation and promotion of real estate sector in an efficient manner and to protect the interest of home buyers.
  • Most of the states/UTs have notified the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Rules.
  • In last year, 9 Regular and Real Estate Appellate Tribunals have been set up by states/UTs.
  • 21 states/UTs have set up the Real Estate Appellate Tribunal.
  • 23 states/UT have operationalized online web portals.
  • More than 40,000 Real Estate Projects and 31,000 Real Estate Agents have been registered under RERA across the country.

Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014:

  • Objective: To protect the rights of urban street vendors and to regulate street vending activities. States/UTs (with legislature) are the appropriate government for framing of Rules and Schemes under the Act for their respective states/UTs.
  • Ministry being the appropriate Government for UTs (without Legislature) has framed Rules and Schemes under the said Act.

Urban Transport:

  • The rapidly growing urban population exerts increasing pressure on the urban transport system resulting in deterioration of the urban transport system thus lowering economic productivity.
  • Hence, the development of cities through prioritizing urban transport is a step forward in this direction.
  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) is the nodal Ministry for planning and coordination of Urban Transport matters at the central level.
  • However, the technical planning of rail transport continues to be with the Ministry of Railways.
  • Similarly, road transport is the responsibility of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • However, the major responsibility for urban transport infrastructure and service delivery rests with State Governments and local bodies.

National Urban Transport Policy:

  • In order to deal with the emerging problems in Urban Transport, the Government of India formulated a National Urban Transport Policy in 2006.
  • The policy seeks to promote integrated land use and transport planning, greater use of public transport and non-motorized modes of travel along with the use of cleaner technologies.

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