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GEOGRAPHY TERMINOLOGIES

Terminology

Explanation

Absolute Location

The Position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude. 00 to 900north or south of the equator, longitude 00   to 1800 east or west of the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, England (a suburb of London).

Acid Rain

The deposition on the earth’s surface of sulphuric and nitric acids formed in the atmosphere as a result of fossil fuel and biomass burning; causes significant damage to vegetation, lakes, wildlife, and built Environments.

Acropolis

Literally ‘high point of the society’. The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.

Adaptation

Process by which humans adjust to a particular set of a circumstances, changes in behaviour that reduce conflict with the environment.

Agribusiness

General term for business that provide that provides the vast array of goods and services that support’s the agricultural industry.

Agricultural surplus

One of two Components, together with social stratification, that enable the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family and which is then sold for Consumption by others.

Agricultural village

A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they say stayed in one place o tend their crops.

Agriculture

The domestication of plants and animals is known as agriculture

AIDS

Immune system disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which over a period of years weakens the capacity of immune system to fight off infection so that Weight loss and weakness set in and other affliction such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten and infected person’s demise

Alienation

The Circumstances in which is a person is indifferent to or estranged from nature or the means of production.

Anarchism

A Political philosophy that rejects the state and argues that social order is possible without a state.

Aquifers

Subterranean, porous, water-holding rocks that provides millions of wells with steady flows of water

Arithmetic Population Density

The total population of a country divided by the areas of the country

Atmosphere

Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth and located some 350 miles over the Earth Surface.

Assimilation

The process through which people loose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerism, when they come in contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence.

Barrioization

Defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighbourhood; referring to barrio, the Spanish word for neighbourhood.

Biodiversity

The total variety of plant and animal species in a particular place

Biomass

The mass of a biological material presents in an area, including both living and dead plant material

Capitalism

A social and economic system for the production of goods and services on private enterprise; under capitalism the producer is separated from the means of production, and the power to exploit resources is limited to relatively few individuals.

Cartography

The conception, production, dissemination, and study of maps.

Census

The periodic Collection and compilation of demographic and other data relating to all individuals in a given country at a particular time.

Centrality

The strength of an urban centre in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities; a city’s ‘reach’ into the surrounding region.

Centrifugal

Forces that tend to divide the country – such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological differences

Centripetal

Forces that tend to unify a country – such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.

Child mortality rate

The figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.

Chlorofluorocarbon

Synthetic organic compounds first created in 1950s and used primarily as refrigerant and as propellants. The role of CFCs in the destruction of ozone layer led to the signing of an international agreement (the Montreal Protocol)

Chronic Disease

Generally long-lasting reflections afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.

Climatic region

Areas of the world with similar Climatic characteristics.

Colonialism

The policy of a state or people seeking to established and maintain authority over another state or people.

Colonization

Physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own governments in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.

Commercial Agriculture

Agricultural system in which the production is primarily for sale.

Commercial geography

A Term for early economic geography, which focused on what was produced and where.

Commodification

The process through which something is given money value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea or previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price that can be traced in a market economy.

Confucianism

A philosophy of ethics, education, and public and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese Culture.

Conservation

A general term of referring to any form of environmental protection, including preservation.

Contagious Diffusion

The distance-controlled spreading of n idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person-analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.

Core/periphery

The concept that states are often unequally divided between powerful cores and dependent peripheries.

Core area

In Geography, a term with several connotations. Cores refers to the centre, heart, or focus

Counter-urbanization

A process of population decentralization that may be prompted by several factors, including the high cost of living in cities, improvements in personal spatial mobility, industrial deconcentration, and advances in formation technologies.

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in population

Cultural Adaptation

Changes in technology, organization, and ideology that permit sound relationships to develop between humans and their physical environment.

Cultural complex

A relatedset of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.

Cultural ecology

The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.

Cultural landscape

The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.

Cultural region

Areas in which there is degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics; areas with similar landscapes.

Culture

The way of life of members of society.

Cycle of poverty

The idea that poverty and deprivation are transmitted inter-generationally, reflecting home background and spatial variations in opportunities.

Deforestation

The clearing and destruction of forests to harvest wood for consumptions, clear land for agricultural uses, and make way for expanding settlements frontiers.

Democracy

A form of government involving free and fair elections, openness and account- ability civil and political rights, and he rule of law.

Demographic Transition

Multistage model, based on western Europe’s experience, of

Devolution

A process of transferring power from central to regional or local levels of governments.

Diaspora

From the Greek ‘to disperse’ a term describing forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from there homeland to a new place.

Diffusion

The spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (Such as technological innovation)

Disorganised capitalism

The most recent form of capitalism, characterized by a process of disorganisation and industrial reconstructing.

Dollarization

When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when its abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country’s currencies as its own.

Ecology

The study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

Economic base theory

A theory that tries to explain the growth or decline of particular regions or cities in term of basic and non-basic economic activities: basic goods and services are those produced for sale outside the city or region.

Economic operator 

A model of human behaviour in which each individual is assumed to be completely rational; economic operators maximize returns and minimize costs.

Ecotourism

Tourism that is environmentally friendly and allows participants to experience a distinctive ecosystem.

Empiricism

A philosophy of science based on the relief that all knowledge result from experience and, therefore, gives priority to factual observations over theoretical statements

Endemic

A disease that is particularly to a locality or region

Environmental stress

The threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping.

Epidemic

Regional outbreak of a disease

Ethnic religion

A religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work.

Ethnicity

Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture.

Ethnography

The study and description of social groups based on researcher involvement and first-hand observation in the field a qualitative rather than quantitative approach.

Expansion diffusion

The spread of an innovation or idea through a population in an area such as a way that the number of those influence grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.

Export processing unit (EPZs)

Zone established by many countries in the periphery where they offer favourable tax, regulator, and trade arrangement.

Federal

A political territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entries within a nation-state where they have common interest defence, foreign affairs, and the like yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies and customs in certain spheres.

Federalism

A form of governments in which power and authority are divided between central and regional governments.

Feminism

The movement for and advocacy of equal rights for women and men, and commitment to improve the position of women in society.

Feudalism

A social and economic system prevalent in Europe, prior to the industrial Revolution.

Forced migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

Foreign direct investment

Direct investment by government or multinational corporation in another country, often in the form of a manufacturing plants; raises employment and output in the host country

Genetically modified organism

Crops that carry’s new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering method

Globalization

A complex combination of economic, political and cultural changes that have long been evident but that have accelerated markedly since about 1980 bringing about a seemingly ever-increasing connectedness of both people and places; it is often clamed that this transformation broadly understood, is the greatest challenge facing human today.

Global positioning system (GPS)

Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographical features.

Gondwana

The southern partition of the primeval supercontinent, Pangaea.

Global warming

Theory that the earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect’s in the earth’s atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities  

Greenhouse Effect

The widely used analogy describing the blanket-like effect of th atmosphere in the heating of the earth surface; shortwave insolation passes through the glass of the atmospheric greenhouse, heats the surface is converted to long-wave radiation that cannot penetrate the glass and thereby results trapping heat, which raises the temperature inside the greenhouse.

Gravity model

A mathematical prediction of interaction of places, the interaction being function of population size of the perspective places and the distance between them.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

A monetary measure of the value at market prices of goods and services produced by a country over a given time period (usually one year) provides a better indication of domestic production then GNP.

Gross national product (GNP) or Gross National Income (GNI)

A monetary measure of the value at market prices of goods and services produced by a country, plus net income from abroad, over a given period (usually one year)

Heartland theory

A geopolitical theory proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder (1904) of world power based on the assumption that the land-based state controlling the Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination.

Hierarchical diffusion

A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected place or peoples.

Human Environment

The second theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National implementation project: reciprocal relationship between human and environment

Human Geography

One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities and landscape.

Hydrological cycle

The system of Exchange involving water in its various forms as it continually circulates among the atmosphere, the oceans, and above and below the land surface.

Hypothesis

In positive philosophy, a general statement deduced from theory but not yet verified.

Iconography

The description and interpretation of visual images, including landscape, in order to uncover their symbolic meanings; the identity of a region as expressed through symbols.

Imperialism

A relationship between states in which one is dominant over the other

Infant mortality rate

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of there lives in a given population.

Infectious disease

Disease that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious disease diffuses directly or indirectly from human to human.

Informal economy

Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government

Informal sector

A part of national economy involve in productive labour, but without any formal reorganization, control, orremuneration

Islam

The youngest of major world religions, born in mecca in 571 AD.

Isogloss

A geographical boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.

Isochrones

Lines on a map of equal travel time from a given starting point. One example of an isoline. Isolines generally allow maps readers it infer change with distance and to estimate specific values at any location on the map. 

Isotherm

Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values.

Landscape

A major concern of geographic study; the characteristics of a particular area specially as created through human society.

Life cycle

The process of change experienced by individuals over their lifespans; often divided into two stages (such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age), each of which is associated with particular forms of behaviour.

Limits to growth

The argument that, in the future, both world population and world economy collapse because available resources are inadequate.

Latitude

A imaginary line running parallel to the equator that is used to measure distance in degrees north or south from the equator.

Laws of migration

Developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.

Least cost theory

Model developed by Alfred weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses transportation cost, labour cost, and agglomeration

Life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.

Lithosphere

The outer layer of rock on earth; include crust and upper mantle.

Little ice age

Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries

Location

A term that refers to a specific part of the earth’s surface; an area where something is situated.

Locational interdependence

The situation in which competing business base their location decisions on those of their rivals.

Longitude

An imaginary line circling the earth and running through poles. Used to determine the location of things by measurement of angular distance, in degrees east or west, from the prime meridian.

Malaria Vectored Disease

Spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in there saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month.

Manufacturing export zones

A feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes area with favourable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations. The goods manufactured in these export zones are primarily destined for the global markets.

Maoism

The revolutionary thoughts and practice of Mao Zedong, based on protracted revolution to achieve power and socialist policies after power is achieved.

Marxism

The body of social and political theory developed by Karl Marx (1818-83), in which mode of production is seen as the key to understanding society.

Mass depletion

Loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species

Mass extension

Maas destruction of most species.

Mediterranean agriculture

Specialized farming that occurs only in area where dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails.

Megalopolis

Term used to designate large coalescing super-cities that are forming in diverse part of the world specifically with an uppercase ‘M’ to refer to the Boston – Washington multi-metropolitan corridor on the north-eastern seaboard of the United states.

Mercantilism

A school of economic thought dominant in Europe in the 17th and early 18th centuries that argued for the involvement of the state in economic life so as to increase national wealth and power.

Mesopotamia

Region of great cities (e. g. Ur and Babylon) located between Tigris and Euphrates rivers

Mode of production

A Marxist term that refers to the organized social relations through which a human society organizes productive activity; human societies are seen as passing through a series of such modes.

Modernization model

A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Water Rostow. The Modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high level of mass consumption.

Monarchy

The institution of a rule over a state by the hereditary head of a family; monarchists are those who favour this system.

Monoculture

Dependence on a single agricultural commodity.

Monotheistic religion

Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in universe.

Montreal protocol

An international agreement in 1987 by 105 countries and the European Community (Now European union). The protocol called for a reduction in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) of 50 per cent by 2000.

Mortality

Deaths as a component of population change.

Multinational state

State With more than one nation within borders.

Nation

A group of people sharing a common culture, and an attachment to some territory; a term difficult to define objectively.

Nation-state

Theoretically, a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by aa people who see themselves as a single, united nation.

Nationalism

The political expression of nationhood; reflects a consciousness of belonging to a nation.

Natural Increase

Population Growth Measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of population does not reflect either migrant or immigrant movements.

Natural resources 

Any valued element of the environment; include minerals, Water, vegetation and soil.

Neo-Colonialism

Economic relationship of dominance and sub-ordination between countries without equivalent political relationships; such situation often develop after political colonialism ends and the former colony achieve independence, but may also occur without prior political colonialism.

Newborn mortality rate

The number of infants who dies within the first month of life per 1000 live births.

Nile river valley

Chronologically the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BC.

Nomadism

Movement along a definite set of places – often cyclic movement.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spear-heading international; initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.

Normative

Focusing on what ought to be rather than what actually is; in normative theory, the aim is to seek what is rational or optimal according to some given criteria.

North American free trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December, 1922 and which took after on January 1, 1994, to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilities the cross-border movement of goods and services between countries.

Official Language

In multiple countries the language selected, often y the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government.

Oligarchy

Rule by an elite group of people, typically and wealthy.

Ozone Layer

Layer in the Atmosphere 16-40 km above the earth that absorbs dangerous ultraviolet solar radiation; ozone is a gas composed of molecules consisting of three atoms of oxygen (O3)

Pandemic

A term use to designate diseases with very wide distribution (a whole country, or even world); ‘epidemic’ disease have more limited distributions.

Patriarchy

A social system in which men dominate, oppress, and exploit women.

Pollution

The release into the environment of substances that degrade land, air or water.

Population ageing

The tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement-level fertility has been reached because of the relatively high number of people in the child-bearing years.

Population pyramid

A diagrammatic representation of the age and sex composition of a population. By convention, the younger ages are at the bottom, males are on left, and females on the right.

Post-modernism

A movement in philosophy, social science, and the arts based on the idea that reality cannot be studied objectively and the multiple interpretations are possible; compare positivism.

Racism

A particular form of prejudice. Attributing characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a group of people who share some physically inherited Characteristics.

Region

A part of the earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct from surrounding areas according to some criterion or criteria; regions are intellectual creations.

Reindustrialization

The development of new industrial activity in a region that has earlier experienced substantial loss of traditional industrial activity.

Remote sensing

A variety of techniques used for acquiring and recording data from points that are not in contact with the phenomena of interest.

Renewable resources 

Resources that generates naturally to provide a new supply within a human life span.

Sacred Space

A landscape particularly esteemed by any individuals or a group, usually (about not necessarily) for religious reasons.

Sexism

Attitudes that serve to justify sexual inequalities by incorrectly attributing or denying certain capacities either to women or to men.

Sex ratio

The number of females per thousand of males

Sexuality

In some feminist and psychoanalytic theory, interpreted as a cultural construct rather than as a biological given. Aligned with power and control.

Slavery

Labour that is controlled through compulsion and is not enumerated; in Marxist terminology, one particular mode of production.

Socialism

A social or economic system that involves common ownership of the means of production and distribution.

Society

Refers to the interrelationships that connect individual members of a culture.

Spatial preferences

Individual (sometimes groups) Evaluation of the relative attractiveness of different locations.

Spatial Monopoly

The situation in which a single producer sells the entire output of a particular industrial good or services in a given area.

Species

A group of able to produce fertile offspring among themselves but not with any other group.

State

An area with defined and internationally acknowledge boundaries; a political unit.

Subsistence agriculture

An agriculture system in which the production is not primarily for sale but is consumed by the farmer’s household

Super organic

An interpretation of culture that sees it as above both nature and individuals and therefore as the principal cause of the human world; a form of cultural determinism.

Sustainable development

The term popularized in 1987 report of the world commission on Environment and Development, referring to economic development that sustains the natural environment (resources) for future generations. 

Symbolic Interactions

A group of social theories that sees the social world as a social product with meaning from interactions.

Time-space convergence

A decrease in the friction of distance between locations as a result of improvements in transportation and communication technology

Topography

A Greek term, revived by 19th century German geographers to refer to regional descriptions of local areas.

Transnational

A large business organization that operates in two or more countries.

UNO

United Nations Headquarters, New York. Founded in 1945 with an initial membership of 51 countries, the UN now has 191 members. Its goals are to maintain international peace and security; develop friendly relations among nations.

World System Theory

Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three- tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably link to the economic activities of the developed world.