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CSAT 2013

Q.1

Read the following passage and answer the items that follow

Ecological research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forest. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted 'affecting several extinction-prone species of wildlife. Habitat fragmentation is, therefore, considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant, illegal mining is aggravating this threat.

What is the central focus of this passage?

(a) Illegal mining in forests

(b) Extinction of wildlife

(c) Conservation of nature

(d) Disruption of habitat

Q.2

Read the following passage and answer the items that follow

Ecological research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forest. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted 'affecting several extinction-prone species of wildlife. Habitat fragmentation is, therefore, considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant, illegal mining is aggravating this threat.

What is the purpose of maintaining the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors?

1. Preservation of biodiversity

2. Management of mineral resources

3. Grant of forest lands for human activities

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

Q.3

In a rare coin collection, there is one gold coin for every three non-gold coins. 10 more gold coins are added to the collection and the ratio of gold coins to non-gold coins would be 1: 2. Based on the information; the total number of coins in the collection now becomes:

Q.4

A gardener has 1000 plants. He wants to plant them in such a way that the number of rows and the number of columns remains the same. What is the minimum number of plants that he needs more for this purpose?

Q.5

A sum of RS. 700 has to be used to give seven cash prizes to the students of a school for their overall academic performance. If each prize is Rs. 20 less than its preceding prize, then what is the least value of the prize?

Q.6

Out of 120 applications for a post, 70 are male and 80 have a driver's license. What is the ratio between the minimum to maximum number of males having driver's license?

Q.7

In a garrison, there was food for 1000 soldiers for one month. After 10 days, 1000 more soldiers joined the garrison. How long would the soldiers be able to carry on with the remaining food?

Q.8

The tank-full petrol in Arun's motor-cycle lasts for 10 days. If he starts using 25Vo more every day, how many days will the tank-full petrollast?

Q.9

A person can walk a certain distance and drive back in six hours. He can also walk both ways in l0 hours. How much time wiII he take to drive both ways?

(a) Two hours

(b) Two and a half hours

(c) Five and a half hours

(d) Four hours

Q.10

Read the following passage and answer the items that follow

Passage

The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semi-solid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertiliser. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.

The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish-kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.

The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km' in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilisers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidise their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertiliser.

According to the passage, why should the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses be restricted?

1. Losing nutrients in this way is not a good practice economically.

2. Watercourses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry.

3. The discharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

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