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Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility

Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility

Context:

The CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute developed the Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility.

Features of Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility:

  • Bio-methanation Plant: CSIR-CMERI have started an innovative technology of producing the Biogas from grass and weeds and Vermi-composting of Slurry of the plant process. 
    • The Bio-Digestion process adopted has a minimum pollution factor. 
    • The MSW facility has special disinfection capabilities to help Break the COVID Chain through UV-C Lights and Hot-Air Convection methods. 
    • The Smokeless Stove has also been developed to utilize these briquettes. 
    • Such stoves have the benefits of Reduction in the import of LPG and reduction in pollution.
  • Targeting a Zero landfill:  The latest technology being used by Institute is the Pyrolysis process wherein the conversion of plastics into gas and fuel is done. 
    • Heavy oil, gas being used in pyrolysis helps in obtaining self-sustainability.  
    • Through Plasma Gasification Process also eco-friendly disposal of solid wastes is processed without the formation and reformation of toxic dioxins and furans.
    • Solid Waste Disposal using Plasma Arc converts wastes into a plasma state for proper disposal. 
  • Wealth out of waste: The residues generated having good carbon content are used in agriculture as fertilizer and non-usable are utilized to make bricks for construction purposes. 
    • Solar energy technology, which can also feed the surplus Energy Supply onto a Mini-Grid.
    • It can result in a drastic reduction of expenditure related to Transportation Logistics and can help reductions in CO2 emissions, by reducing fossil fuel usage. 

Significance:

  • The processing facility has not only helped to achieve the Decentralised Decimation of Solid Wastes but has also helped create value-added end-products from waste.
  • The changing ecological scenarios require special attention to address the issue of ‘Sustainable Processing of Municipal Solid Waste’.
  • This CSIR-CMERI MSW Technology envisions a Zero-Landfill and a Zero Waste City in addition to developing Job-Creation opportunities. 

Pyrolysis:

  • The word pyrolysis is coined from the Greek words "pyro" which means fire and "lysis" which means separating.
  • It is a process of chemically decomposing organic materials at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen.
  • The process occurs at temperatures above 430 °C and under pressure.
  • It simultaneously involves the change of physical phase and chemical composition and is an irreversible process.

Source: PIB