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Daily Editorials

Daily News

Jal Jeevan Mission

CONTEXT:

  • Karnataka State presented their Annual Action Plan under Jal Jeevan Mission with details of the State’s action plan for the year 2021-22 as well as saturation plan for the whole State.

Karnataka tap water connection

  • It will be ensuring every rural household gets tap water connection.

  • In 2021-22, the State plans to provide 25 lakh tap water connections in rural areas of the State.

  • > 30 % water connection: Karnataka State has 91.19 lakh rural households, out of which only 28.44 lakh (31.2%) have tap water supply.

  • ‘Har Ghar Jal: So far, 23 Panchayats and 676 villages in the State have been declared ‘Har Ghar Jal’, which means every rural household tap water supply.

    • It is a big move to empower the community as it not just provides ‘ease of living’ to the women and young girls.

  • 95% Schools and 95% Anganwadi Centres, 84% Ashramshalas, 91% Gram Panchayat buildings and 92% Health Centres have piped water connections in Karnataka.

  • Transparency and accountability: To ensure transparency and accountability, a robust Grievance redressal mechanism has been developed by the State of Karnataka.

    • It is called ‘Bhoomi online – Parihara.

    • It provides quick and easy mechanism of grievance redressal related to drinking water supply also on daily basis.

Jal Jeevan Mission:

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission aims for providing piped drinking water to all rural households by 2024.

  • JJM focuses on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level. The total allocation to the scheme is over 3 lakh crore.

  • Funding Pattern: The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is

    • 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States,

    • 50:50 for other states, and

    • 100% for Union Territories.

  • It envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections by 2024.

  • JJM is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component.

  • JJM looks to create a Jan Andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.

JAL JEEVAN MISSION URBAN:

  • It was launched in Union Budget 2021-22.

  • Aim: To bring safe water to 2.86 crore households through tap connection. This in line with the Centre’s rural water supply project launched in 2019.

  • Fund:  Rs 50,011 crore

  • Target year: 2024.

  • The mission is the country’s 12th attempt to connect every household with tap water.

  • India has failed miserably to fulfil its past promises around this objective.

  • Jal Jeevan Mission (Rural) has been able to cover only around 34 % of the targeted households (65.5 million) in rural India.

Jal Shakti Ministry

  • Jal Shakti Ministry was created by the government after merging Ministries of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation along with Drinking Water and Sanitation.

  • ‘Jal Shakti’ ministry will encompass issues ranging from providing clean drinking water, international and inter-state water disputes, to the Namami Gange project aimed at cleaning Ganga and its tributaries, and sub-tributaries.

  • The ministry will roll out the government’s ambitious plan (‘Nal se Jal’ scheme under Jal Jeevan Plan) to provide piped water connection to every household in India by 2024.

SOURCE: PIB

Food Security and Aadhar Issues

CONTEXT:

  • The Supreme Court recently asked the Centre to respond to allegations made in a PIL by a that 3 crore ration cards have been cancelled in the country.

KEY DETAILS:

  • 3 crore ration cards have been cancelled in the country because of the insistence on Aadhaar linkage and biometric authentication.

  • It has resulted in the denial of foodgrains to poor citizens, which in turn has caused starvation deaths including that of the petitioner’s 11-year-old daughter.

  • Poor Internet in remote areas was also flagged as an issue.

Lokniti-CSDS Survey findings- National Election Study

  • National Election Study (NES) during the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, Lokniti-CSDS had asked electors whether they had ever been denied foodgrains due to non-possession/production of an Aadhaar ID.

  • It found out that 28% or over one in four households had indeed experienced such a situation.

  • While in percentage terms this may not seem all that high a figure to some, in absolute terms it would be huge.

  • Biometric authentication: Ever since Aadhaar-based biometric authentication was introduced in PDS, then issues of people’s fingerprints, iris scanners of not getting confirmed by the e-PoS device at the ration shops.

    • And a poor Internet connection forcing people to spend on another trip to the shop.  

Rural vs urban in the states:

  • Contrary to the notion that seeding and authentication problems are occurring mostly in remote areas, data indicates that they are nearly of the same magnitude in villages and towns/cities.

  • Rural areas: While 28% of respondents belonging to ration card-holding households in rural areas were refused ration due to Aadhaar-related issues at some point.

  • Urban areas: It was 27%.

    • Some big cities were slightly better off, however.

  • Poorest worst affected: In both rural and urban areas, the poorest were worst affected – 39% of households with a monthly income below Rs 2,000 said they were at some point denied PDS ration due to Aadhaar problems.

Hindi heartland v. Other States:

  • Hindi heartland: The most striking difference was noticed when we disaggregated the responses by a grouping of Hindi-speaking heartland states vis-à-vis the rest.

  • ‘Bimaru’ states-In the Hindi belt — Bihar, Jharkhand, MP, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, UP and Uttarakhand, states once described as ‘Bimaru’ states — as many as 40% of RC-holding households reported a denial of ration due to Aadhaar issues.

    • Compared to 20% households in the rest of the country.

  • Issues of biometric authentication: Problem may be less due to non-possession of Aadhaar and more due to biometric authentication and server issues.

    • As respondents from 95% of RC-holding h  ouseholds in the ‘Bimaru’ belt did report having Aadhaar.

  • State wise: Rajasthan, 36%; in Chhattisgarh, 39%; in MP and Jharkhand, over 40%; and in Bihar, particularly high at 56%.

  • Denial of PDS grains: The fact that one-fourth households did at some point not get ration they were entitled to because of the Aadhaar compulsion is a serious matter.

SOURCE: Indian Express

ARIES facility for Aditya-L1

CONTEXT:

  • The Indian programme to study the Sun and the region between the Sun and the Earth from space – Aditya-L1 – is due to be launched next year.

  • ARIES facility will provide ground support centre to monitor and coordinate the work on its various payloads.

Aditya-L1 and ARIES facility:

  • The Indian programme to study the Sun and the region between the Sun and the Earth from space – Aditya-L1 – is due to be launched next year.

  • Aditya-L1 is India’s first solar mission to study the Sun’s corona, solar emissions, solar winds.

  • It will carry seven payloads which have been developed by various institutions across the country.

  • Once the mission is launched, there will be a need for a ground support centre to be provided  by the ARIES facility.

  • ARIES facility known as Aryabhata Research Institute for observational Sciences, is situated near Nainital.  

  • With about four to five personnel, this centre will come up at Haldawani, where ARIES is setting up a data centre also.

Aim of ARIES Facility:

  • To perform analysis over scientific data obtained from Aditya-L1.

  • The total number of guest users will be from a few tens to a few hundreds.

  • A time allocation committee comprising senior and expert scientists will evaluate proposals based on their merit and feasibility to decide the priority.

Aditya-L1 Support Centre:

  • It will provide training through regular workshops for the guest users.

  • Apart from this, it will provide ready-to-use Python and Java apps for the satellite data and demos and handouts to facilitate the guest users.

  • CMEs Identification in Inner Solar Corona (CIISCO):

    • An ARIES team has recently developed an algorithm to study the accelerating solar eruptions in the lower corona called CMEs Identification in Inner Solar Corona (in short, CIISCO), where CME stands for coronal mass ejection.

  • The centre will also provide source code for advanced data analysis. For example, it will provide the source code for CIISCO to detect accelerating CMEs in the solar atmosphere.

  • The group has also developed several advanced image processing algorithms to detect fine-scale structures in the solar atmosphere.

ARIES Facility:

  • Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) is a leading research institute in Nainital, Uttarakhand.

  • It sspecializes in Astronomy, Solar Physics, Astrophysics and Atmospheric Sciences.

  • It is an autonomous body under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  • The institute is situated at Manora Peak (1,951 m (6,401 ft)), about 9 km from Nainital, a popular hill station.

Aditya-L1

  • It is India’s first solar mission.

  • It will be launched using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).

  • The space-based observatory will have seven payloads (instruments) on board.

  • Aim: To study the Sun’s corona, solar emissions, solar winds and flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and will carry out round-the-clock imaging of the Sun.

Objectives:

  • Study the sun’s outer most layers, the corona and the chromospheres.

  • Collect data about coronal mass ejection, which will also yield information for space weather prediction.

Significance of the mission:

  • It be immensely helpful in discriminating between different models for the origin of solar storms.

Position of the satellite:

  • Aditya- L1 satellite will be placed in the halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the sun-earth system.

SOURCE: The Hindu

Rewaconodon indicus-Cynodonts-20-million-year-old rat-like creatures

CONTEXT:

  • The Tiki Formation in Madhya Pradesh, a treasure trove of vertebrate fossils, has now yielded a new species and two genera of cynodonts, small rat-like animals that lived about 220 million years ago.