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All member states of UN can now join International Solar Alliance-India


India on Friday said all member states of the United Nations, including those lying beyond the tropics, can now join the International Solar Alliance (ISA) with an amendment to its framework agreement coming into effect recently.

                       International Solar Alliance UPSC IAS 2020 General Knowledge


Universalisation of the membership: In pursuance of the vision of Prime Minister Narendra Modi for achieving the universalisation of the membership of the International Solar Alliance beyond the tropics.

  • The first general assembly of the ISA, held on October 3, 2018.
  • It adopted the amendment to its framework agreement to expand the scope of membership to all member states of the United Nations.

Ratifications/approvals/acceptances: After the necessary ratifications/approvals/acceptances were obtained from the requisite number of ISA member countries as mandated by the framework agreement.

  • The amendment has entered into force on January 8, 2021, the Ministry of External Affairs.

ISA framework agreement: It allows all the member states of the United Nations to join the grouping, including those lying beyond the tropics.


International Solar Alliance: India takes its place in the sun with launch  of solar alliance | India News - Times of India

It was launched jointly by the Indian prime minister and the French president.

COP 21: During the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, or COP21, in Paris.

The Paris Declaration establishes ISA

HQ: Gurugram

Aims: It aims to contribute to the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement through rapid and massive deployment of solar energy.

Objectives: Global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity and mobilisation of investment of over US$ 1000 billion into solar energy by 2030.

Collective response: It aims to bring together countries to provide a collective response to the main common obstacles to the massive deployment of solar energy in terms of

  • Technology,
  • Finance and
  • Capacity.

Source: Indian Express

Russia to announce exit from Open Skies Treaty


Russia will announce its exit from the Open Skies treaty in the coming days, a pact that allows unarmed surveillance flights over member countries, the unnamed official sources as saying on Friday.

The report about Russia's possible departure from the treaty comes ahead of U.S. president-elect Joe Biden's Jan. 20 inauguration.

                         Are The US And Russia Neighbors? - Answers


The United States left the arms control and verification treaty in November, accusing Russia of violating it.


Exit takes 6 months: Russia will exit the treaty six months after notifying other members of its departure, unless it changes its mind in the interim.

Russia has raised concerns that, despite the U.S. exit, Washington could potentially retain access to overflight intelligence gathered by allies who remain members in the treaty.

Moscow had tried to get guarantees from other countries that they would not share such intelligence with Washington, but had not been given any assurances.

New START, the last remaining major nuclear arms control treaty between Moscow and Washington, is set to expire next month. Biden has said he's keen to renew it, but it remains unclear for how long.


Function: To monitor arm development by conducting surveillance flights (unarmed) over each other’s territories.

Members: It is an agreement that allows its 34 signatories countries

Existence: It was signed in 1992 and came into effect in 2002.

Therefore, the treaty established an aerial surveillance system for its participants.

Both US and Russia are signatories of the treaty. US left the treaty last year.

India is not a member of this treaty.

Source: The Hindu